Flea NewsVolume 51

Produced by R.E. Lewis, Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011
FLEA NEWS is a biannual newsletter devoted to matters involving insects belonging to the order Siphonaptera (fleas) and related subjects. It is compiled and distributed free of charge by Robert E. Lewis (relewis@iastate.edu) with the support of the Department of Entomology at Iowa State University, Ames, IA, and a grant in aid from Sandoz Animal Health , based in Des Plaines, IL. It is mainly bibliographic in nature. Many of the sources are abstracting journals and title pages and not all citations have been checked for completeness or accuracy. Additional information will be provided upon written or e-mail request. Further, recipients are urged to contribute items of interest to the profession for inclusion herein.

This newsletter is now available in electronic format. The preferred method of accessing the electronic version is through the World-Wide Web at the following Universal Resource Locator: https://www.ent.iastate.edu/fleanews/aboutfleanews.html or through either Gopher or anonymous FTP: gopher.ent.iastate.edu in the "Publications" directory. Electronic versions are available for No. 46, July, 1993; No. 47, December, 1993; No. 48, July, 1994; No. 49, December, 1994, No. 50, June, 1995 and this number.

The opinions and assertions contained herein are the private ones of the authors and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the Department of Entomology, Iowa State University or Sandoz Animal Health.



Shortly after mailing Flea News 50 I was informed of the death of Dr. George Dunnet by D. K. Mardon. Following is an obituary which I requested from Mr. Mardon, with a few minor additions and alterations.

George MacKenzie Dunnet

19-April-1928 * 11-September-1995

George Dunnet was born in Caithness, the most northerly county of mainland Scotland. He was educated in Aberdeenshire and at Aberdeen University where he earned a first class honours degree in 1949 and a doctorate in 1952, and where, later, most of his career would be based. After a brief spell at the Bureau of Animal Populations in Oxford and his marriage to Margaret Henderson Thompson, he went to Australia to work as a Research Officer for the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) during the period 1953-1958. He returned to Aberdeen University to a post as Lecturer and to be in charge of the newly established Culterty Field Station at Newburgh, a few miles north of Aberdeen. As Director of this rural outpost of the University's Department of Natural History, as it was then known, George led the development of a burgeoning and ongoing programme of ecological research in the nearby Ythan estuary and Sands of Forvie National Nature Reserve. The statistics of this unit are impressive, with nearly 100 post-graduate students, many from overseas, having gained higher degrees there over 30 years and with many postdoctoral research projects. George also carried out research for DSIR in New Zealand during 1968-1969. He was promoted successively to Senior Lecturer, Professor, Regius Professor of Natural History and Head of Department, and eventually became Dean of the Faculty of Science. Several fellowships and honours were awarded to George from 1970 to 1994, and a D.Sc. in 1984. From the early 1970's he became increasingly involved in a number of committees including some from British government agencies too numerous to list here. This work continued until his untimely death from a stroke in Copenhagen.

George developed an interest in fleas while a student at Aberdeen and began publishing papers in 1950. However, it was his work in Australia that gave him his outstanding opportunity to develop and utilize this interest. Working on indigenous mammals in several parts of the country brought him into contact with host animals and their fleas and also with many other wildlife biologists with similar contacts. He both collected fleas himself and stimulated others to do likewise, coordinating the process to result in a substantial amount of material ultimately destined for the Australian National Insect Collection or some of the state museums. Finding that identification was less than simple and dependent on a number of scattered publications he resolved to write a unifying paper to collate what was known about the fleas of Australia. Furthermore. many new species were being discovered which required description. The project was to be completed after George returned to Scotland.

George was primarily an ornithologist, although in Australia and New Zealand he worked on mammals. Being Director of Culterty left little time for research on fleas. He decided that completion of the Australian project needed a research assistant and hired me [D.K.M.] for this post. I joined him in his laboratory in Culterty in September of 1969, cutting my pulicologist's teeth, so to speak, on some endemic stick-tight fleas. New species were described by us or in collaboration with other colleagues; George Holland, Bob Traub and Frans Smit. Our joint work culminated in the publication of the Monograph of Australian Fleas in Australia in 1974, nearly twenty years after George conceived the idea.

During this period Dr. Miriam Rothschild suggested that I might contribute to the Illustrated Catalogue of the Rothschild Collection of Fleas with a volume on the Pygiopsyllidae. To enable this work to be carried out in the University Zoology Department (now renamed), George obtained a research grant from the Science Research Council that enabled me to accept Dr. Rothschild's offer. By then he was much occupied with University and outside committee business, but retained his interest in fleas, utilising them for teaching part of a Biogeography course. The research grant and my employment as a flea taxonomist ended on 31-December-1977, but our last collaborative project was a rewrite of the chapter on fleas in the second edition of the CSIRO textbook The Insects of Australia, 1991. This proved to be his last publication on fleas.

The projects with which George was associated resulted in the description of fourteen new species and subspecies and three new genera of fleas. One species was named after him. Following are the taxa that he authored or coauthored.

Parapsyllus cardinis Dunnet

Glaciopsyllus antarcticus Smit & Dunnet

Echidnophaga calabyi Mardon & Dunnet

Echidnophaga octotricha Mardon & Dunnet

Echidnophaga eyrei Mardon & Dunnet

Xenopsylla australiaca Mardon & Dunnet

Lycopsylla lasiorhini Mardon & Dunnet

Wurunjerria warnekei Mardon & Dunnet

Pygiopsylla tunneyi Mardon & Dunnet

Coorilla longictena Dunnet & Mardon

Stephanocircus harrisoni Traub & Dunnet

Stephanocircus g. greeni Traub & Dunnet

Stephanocircus g. tasmanica T. & D.

Stephanocircus domrowi Traub & Dunnet

Siphonaptera References published by G. M. Dunnet

Fleas (Siphonaptera) from mammals in Aberdeenshire. Scot. Nat. 62: 42-49 (1950).

Records of small mammals and their fleas from eastern North Tyrol, Austria. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. Ser. 12, VIII: 385-389 (1955).

Records of small mammals and their fleas from Reinosa, Santander, Spain. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. Ser. 12, VIII: 445-448 (1955).

Annual and regional variation in the flea populations of nests of the house-martin Martula u. urbica (L.) in northeast Scotland Entomol. Mon. Mag. 91: 161-167 (1955). With R. M. Allan.

Fleas from Macquarie Island with a description of a new species of Parapsyllus Enderlein. Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. Ser. B, 30:43-49 (1961).

Insects of Macquarie Island. Siphonaptera. Pac. Insects 4: 972 (1962).

Records of some fleas collected in southern Norway (Siphonaptera). Norsk Entomol. Tidjs. 12: 17-18 (1962).

A new genus and species of flea from Antarctica (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae). Pac. Insects 4: 895-903 (1962). With F.G.A.M. Smit.

Distribution and host relationships of fleas of the Antarctic and Subantarctic. Proc. SCAR Symp. Antarctic Biol. pp. 223-238 (1964).

Siphonaptera (Fleas). In: I. Mackerras (CSIRO) (Ed.). The Insects of Australia. pp. 647-655. Melbourne University Press. (1970).

Chaetopsylla trichosa trichosa, a new flea for Britain. Entomologist 104: 284 (1971).

Four new pulicid fleas (Siphonaptera) from Australia. J. Aust. Entomol. Soc. 10: 123-130. (1971). With D. K. Mardon.

Lycopsylla lasiorhini sp. n., a new species of flea from Australia, with a redescription of the genus Lycopsylla Rothschild (Siphonaptera: Pygiopsyllidae). J. Aust. Entomol. Soc. 10: 235-240 (1971). With D. K. Mardon.

Fleas. In: The New Australian Encyclopaedia. (Pagination not given.) (1972).

A new genus and species of flea from Victoria (Siphonaptera: Pygiopsyllidae). J. Aust. Entomol. Soc. 11: 61-68 (1972). With D. K. Mardon

A revision of the 'group A' species of Australian Pygiopsylla Rothschild, 1906 (Siphonaptera: Pygiopsyllidae). J. Aust. Entomol. Soc. 11: 69-77 (1972). With D. K. Mardon.

Revision of the siphonapteran genus Stephanocircus Skuse, 1893 (Stephanocircidae). Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 20: 41-128. (1973). With R. Traub.

Coorilla longictena a new genusand species of bat flea from New South Wales (Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae). J. Aust. Entomol. Soc. 12: 3-10 (1973). With D. K. Mardon.

A monograph of Australian fleas (Siphonaptera). Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 30: 1-273 (1974). With D. K. Mardon.

Siphonaptera. In: The Insects of Australia. Supplement, 1974. Division of Entomology, CSIRO, Australia. p. 91

Fleas. In: The New Australian Encyclopaedia. (Pagination not given). (1976).

Siphonaptera (Fleas). In: The Insects of Australia. 2nd. Ed. (CSIRO). pp. 705-716, Melbourne University Press. (1991). With D. K. Mardon.

Dr. Thomas Schwan of the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, MT, recently informed me of the passing of Dr. William Jellison, who was associated with that laboratory for most of his professional career. Following is an obituary based upon a short biography which I prepared a few years back for inclusion in A Catalogue of Siphonaptera of North America north of Mexico. It has been slightly modified in collaboration with Dr. Robert Traub.

William Livingston Jellison

28-January-1906 * 7-November-1995

William L. Jellison was born in Kalispel, Flathead County, Montana. He received the B.S. from the University of Montana, Bozeman, in 1929, and took a position as Bacteriologist on the staff of the United States Public Health Service, Rocky Mountain Laboratory, at Hamilton, Montana. In 1931 his title was changed to Parasitologist, a title he retained until his retirement in 1960. He earned the M.S. in 1934 and the Ph.D. degree in 1940, both from the University of Minnesota at Minneapolis-St. Paul. His doctoral dissertation was titled Biological studies on the faunae of nests of birds and rodents in relation to disease of animals and man. He also pursued graduate and postdoctorial studies at Stanford, Johns Hopkins, Harvard and Duke Universities. As a commissioned officer, first in the United States Public Health Service (USPHS) from 1941 to 1946, and later in the United States Army Reserve from 1955 to 1961, Jellison served on the USPHS mission to the Yunnan -Burma railroad (1941-1942); was an United States Army Malaria Control Officer in Assam, India (1942-1943); and served as a research associate with the United States Typhus Commission in Burma (1945); the Korean Hemorrhagic Fever Commission, United States Army, in Soeul, Korea (1953); and with the Pan-American Sanitary Bureau, Zoonosis Laboratory, Azul, Argentina (1960). In 1980 he received an honorary D.Sc. from Montana State University, and was awarded the Hoogstraal Award in 1991 by the American Committee of Medical Entomologists of the American Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene.

Jellison was an internationally renown parasitologist and many of his musing on epidemiology, evolution and biogeography have since been shown to be remarkably sagacious. He was active in a number of professional societies and authored or co-authored in excess of 150 scientific papers, three books and several bulletins dealing with arthropods of medical importance and/or the zoonoses transmitted by them. Although he authored or coauthored four flea taxa, his most important contributions to our knowledge of the North American flea fauna were the Indexes to the Literature of Siphonaptera of North America, a co-authored series published in 1942, 1953 and 1967.

Jellison and his wife Gretchen, who predeceased him by a few months, lived in retirement in Hamilton, Montana, just a few blocks from the Rocky Mountain Laboratory. Mrs. Jellison was a talented artist and assisted her husband by illustrationg some of his many publications. Following are the four flea taxa described by him.

Thrassis pandorae Jellison

Opisocrostis tuberculatus cynomuris Jellison

Conorhinopsylla nidicola Jellison

Mioctenopsylla traubi Holland & Jellison

Siphonaptera References Published by W. L. Jellison

Parasites of porcupines of the genus Erethizon (Rodentia) Trans. Am. Micr. Soc. 52: 42-47 (1933).

Faunae of nests of the magpie and crow in western Montana. Canad. Entomol. 65: 26-31 (1933). With C. B. Philip.

Distribution and hosts of the human flea, Pulex irritans L., in Montana and other western states. Publ. Hlth Rep.s 51: 842-844 (1936). With G. M. Kohls.

A new species of Thrassis (Siphonaptera). Publ. Hlth Reps 52: 726-729 (1937).

Sylvatic plague in Montana. J. Parasitol. 23: 535 (1937). With R.R. Parker & G.E. Davis.

Sylvatic Plague: Studies of predatory and scavenger birds in relation to its epidemiology. Publ. Hlth Reps 54: 792-798 (1939).

Notes on the fleas of prairie dogs with the description of a new subspecies. Publ. Hlth Reps 54: 840-844 (1939).

Opisodasys Jordan, 1933, a genus of Siphonaptera. J. Parasitol. 25: 413-420 (1939).

Siphonaptera: a list of Alaskan fleas. Publ. Hlth Reps 54: 2020-2023 (1939). With G.M. Kohls.

Siphonaptera: notes on two California species. Publ. Hlth Reps 55: 489-492 (1940).

Fleas of eastern United States by Irving Fox (a review). J. Parasitol. 26: 335-336. (1940).

Biological studies on the faunae of nests of birds and rodents in relation to disease of animals and man. Summaries of Ph.D. Theses, Vol. III, University of Minnesota. (Not published elsewhere.) (1940).

Siphonaptera: the genera Amphalius and Ctenophyllus in North America. Publ. Hlth Reps 56: 2341-2349 (1941).

Index to the literature of Siphonaptera of North America. Natl Inst. Hlth Bull. 178: 1-193 (1942). With N.E. Good.

Siphonaptera: species and host list of Montana fleas. Miscl. Publ. #2, Montana State Board of Entomology. 22 pp. (1943). With G.M. Kohls & H.B. Mills.

Siphonaptera: the genus Oropsylla in North America. J. Parasitol. 31: 83-97 (1945).

Siphonaptera: a species of Conorhinopsylla from Kansas. J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 18: 109-111. (1945).

Siphonaptera: host distribution of the genus Opisocrostis Jordan. Trans. Am. Micr. Soc. 66: 64-69 (1947).

Ectoparasites and other arthropods occuring in Texas bat caves. Natl Speleological Soc. Bull. 10: 116-117. (1948).

The Siphonaptera of Canada by G.P. Holland (a review). Canad. Field. Nat. 64: 156-157 (1950).

The Siphonaptera of Canada by G.P. Holland (a review). Trans. Am. Micr. Soc. 49: 422-423 (1950).

On Mioctenopsylla Rothschild, a genus of Siphonaptera (Ceratophyllidae), with description of a new species. Canad. Entomol. 84: 374-379 (1952). With G.P. Holland.

Index of the literature of Siphonaptera of North America. Supplement No. 1. 246 pp. Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, MT (mimeographed). (1953). With B. Locker & R. Bacon.

A synopsis of North American fleas, north of Mexico, and notice of supplementary index. J. Parasitol. 39: 610-618 (1953). With B. Locker & R. Bacon.

Fleas and Disease. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 4: 389-414 (1959).

Index of the literature of Siphonaptera of North America. Supplement No. 1. 246 pp. Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, MT (mimeographed). (microfisch edition) (1960). With B. Locker & R. Bacon.

Fleas from Scandinavia and Finland. Entomologist 95: 131-133. (1962).

Parasites of Alaskan vertebrates: host-parasite index. University of Oklahoma Research Institute Publication. 73 pp. (1964).

Index to the literature of Siphonaptera of North America. Supplement No. 2. 406 pp. Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, MT (mimeographed). (1967). With L. Glesne.

Fleas of Montana. Montana Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report No. 29. 79 pp. (1973). With C.M. Senger.

Tularemia in North America 1930-1974. University of Montana Foundation, Missoula, MT. 276 pp. (Siphonaptera, pp 80-82). (1974).

Fleas of western North America except Montana in the Rocky Mountain Laboratory collection. In: H.C. Taylor & J. Clark (Eds.) Papers in honor of Jerry Flora. Western Washington State College, Bellingham, WA pp. 55-136. (1976). With C.M. Senger.


The National Pest Control Association, Inc. recently announced the release of a computer based "Flea Tutorial". Developed by Thomas R. Fasulo and Philip G. Koehler, it is a self-training program on fleas. It is an easy to use instructional method for flea identification (?) as well as dealing with flea biology, habits and control. It is also said to be user friendly. It includes the following features: Keyboard and/or mouse driven; detailed color graphics and photographs, including printing capability.

System Requirements

A 8088 (XT), 80386 or 80486 MS-DOS (versions 3.1 or higher) or MS-DOS or IBM compatible computer with at least 640KB of RAM installed and 3.8MB of storage on a hard drive and VGA monitor and card. Printing requires a laser jet printer. Order No. 3005 on 3.5" disk, No. 3006 on 5.25" disk. Both versions are $60.00 plus shipping and handling.

They also handle a number of Books, Business Aids, Pamphlets, Slides and Videos, as well as other Computer Programs.

Orders or inquiries should be directed to:
N.P.C.A. Resource Center
8100 Oak Street
Dunn Loring, VA 22027
(800) 678 6722
Fax (703) 573 4116



Although it may not be obvious from the titles, citations included here pertain to fleas and the zoonoses associated with them. Additional information is available upon request.

1990 (List 10)

Zlotorzycka, J. Catalogue of the Polish parasitic fauna. Part IV. Bird Parasites. Fascicle 3. Parasitic Arthropods. (PNW) Polish Scientific Publishers. 366 pp.

1991 (List 10)

CAO Li-ping & HE Ling. Studies on esterase isoenzymes of three species of flea. Chinese Journal of Parasitology & Parasitic Diseases 9(3): 209-212.

Jani, B.M., R.G. Jani, A.M. Thaker & B.L. Avsatthi. A trial with Butox against canine ectoparasites. Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 5(2): 136-138.

MA Li-Ming et al. A report of wild rat flea biting man: two cases. Chinese Journal of Parasitology & Parasitic Diseases 9(1): 70.

WU Wen-Jer, SHYU Meng-Haur & HSU Tung-Ching. Ecology and control of cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) Chinese Journal of Entomology. Special Publication No. 6: 49-65.

1992 (List 8)

Benedictow, O. J. Plague in the late medieval nordic countries. Epidemiological studies. Middelalderforlaget CGS A/S, Oslo, Norway. 274 pp. + 1 Appendix and Bibliography

Haitlinger, R. & A.L. Ruprecht. Parasitic arthropods (Siphonaptera, Diptera, Acari) of bats from the western part of the Biatowieza primeval forest. Nyctalus (N. F.), Berlin 4(3): 315-319.

Kononava, I.M. Ectoparasite fauna of small mammals in the Prpyat Nature Reserve. Vesti Akademii Navuk BSSR. Seryya Biyalagichnykh Navuk 1992(3-4) 88-92.

Matskási, I., F. Mészáros, É. Murai & A. Dudich. On the parasite fauna of Microtus oeconomus Pallas, 1776 ssp. mehelyi Éhik, 1928 in Hungary (Trematoda, Cestoda, Nematoda, Siphonaptera). Miscellanea Zoologica Hungarica 7: 9-14.

Medvedev, S.G. Structure of the aedeagus in fleas. (Siphonaptera). I. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 71(3): 510-521.

Nascimento, R.A. & T.H.A. Arigony. Notes on Tungidae. I. New data on the biology and morphology of Tunga penetrans (L., 1758) Jarocki, 1838 (Siphonaptera - Tungidae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia (1990) 7(1-2): 147-154.

Slacek, B. Diagnosis of flea allergy dermatitis in dogs and cats. Thesis, Tierartzliche Hochschule Hannover, Hannover, Germany. 139 pp.

WANG Shan-Qing, WU Hou-Yong, KONG Wei-Wei & CAO Jun-Tian. Observation on the chorion structure of fleas by scanning electron microscopy. Chinese Journal of Parasitic Disease Control 5(4): 291.

1993 (List 6)

Alekseev, E.V. Ecological-geographic characteristics of natural centers of plague (use of the data bank of epizootiological inspection). Soviet Journal of Ecology 23(6): 385-390.

Baldo, B.A. Allergenicity of the cat flea. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 23(5): 347-349.

Clark, F., D.A.C. McNeil & L.A. Hill. Studies on the dispersal of three con-generic species of flea monoxenous to the house martin (Delichon urbica (L.)). Entomologist 112(2): 85-94.

Gants, R. Flea control: preparing clients for the invasion. Veterinary Economics 34(4): 52 ... 60.

Gomez, M.S. & M. Gallego. Ceratophyllus (Ceratophyllus) fringillae (Walker, 1856): a new species of Siphonaptera for the Iberian Peninsula. Res. & Rev. Parasitol. 52(1-2): 63.

Guardis, M., M.L. Vignau & M.A. Risso. Life cycle of Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché, 1835) in protected microhabitat. Res. & Rev. Parasitol. 52(1-2): 57-60.

Kristofík, J., P. Masan, Z. Susteck & P. Gajdos. Arthropods in the nests of penduline tits (Remiz pendulinus). Biológia (Bratislava) 48(5): 493-505.

Logas, D.B. & G.A. Kunkle. Double-blind study examining the effects of evening primrose oil on feline pruritic dermatitis. Veterinary Dermatology 4(4): 181-184.

Mauri, R. & G.T. Navone. Ectoparásitos (Siphonaptera y Acari) mas comunes en Dasypodidae (Mammalia: Xenarthra) de la República Argentina. Revista de la Socidad Entomológica Argentina 51(1-4): 121-122.

McDonald, D. Insect pest control in urban areas: some novel approaches. International Pest Control 35(6): 151-152.

Medvedev, S.G. Structure of the aedeagus in fleas. (Siphonaptera). II. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 72(3): 519-536. (in Russian)

Medvedev, S.G. Structure of the modified abdominal segments in fleas (Siphonaptera). Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 72(4): 747-763. (in Russian)

Muraleedharan, K. & B.N. Paramsivaiah. On Ctenocephalides infestation in sheep and goats and its control. Cheiron 22(5): 192-194.

Orell, M., S. Rytkonen & K. Ilomaki. Do pied flycatchers prefer nest boxes with old nest material? Annales Zoologici Fennici 30(4): 313-316.

Pet'ko, B. Macky domáce ako zdroj infestáceií l'udí blchami v mestách. [Domestic cats as a source of human flea infestations in towns.] Cesko-Slovenská Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Immunologie 42(4): 190-191.

Pomorski, Z.J.H. Alergiczne pchle zapalenie skóry (APZS) glowna przyczyna swiadu i psów i kotow. [Flea allergy dermatitis as the main cause of pruritus in dogs and cats.] Magazyn Weterynaryjny 2(5): 11-18.

Trudeau, W.L., E. Fernandez-Caldas, R.W. Fox, R. Brenner, G.A. Bucholtz & R.F. Lockey. Allergenicity of the cat flea. (Ctenocephalides felis felis). Clinical and Experimental Allergy 23(5): 377-383.

Uhl, W., P. Betke & J. Decker. Der Rotfuchs im Sectionsraum. [Post-mortem findings in red foxes.] Praktische Tierarzt 74(11): 1018-1024.

Vizio, E.A. & J.M. Brihuega. Eficacia de un extracto acuoso de Ctenocephalides ssp. en el tratamiento de la dermatitis alérgica provocada por pulgas en el perro. [Efficacy of an aqueous extract of Ctenocephalides ssp. in the treatment of allergic dermatitis caused by fleas in dogs.] Revista de Medicina Veterinaria (Buenos Aires) 74(6): 324 ... 326.

1994 (List 4)

Angarano, D.W. & L.C. Parish. Comparative dermatology: parasitic disorders. Clinics in Dermatology 12(4): 543-550.

Bezerra, S.M.C. Tungiasis - an unusual case of severe infestation. International Journal of Dermatology 33(10): 725.

Canestri Trotti, G. & S. Giannetto. Scanning electron microscopy of Archaeopsylla erinacei erinacei. In: Atti XVIII Congresso Nazionale Società Italiana di Parassitologia, Ozzano Emilia, 22-24 guigno 1994. Parassitologia (Roma) 36 (Supplemento 1): 27.

CAO Li-Ping & HE Lin. Studies of the chromosome karyotypes and C-banding pattern in four species of fleas. Hereditas (Beijing) 16(4): 19-23.

Caster, P.T., G.A. Heidt & K.D. Stone. Faunal use of nest boxes in the Ochita Mountains of central Arkansas. The Southwestern Naturalist 39: 380-382.

Chadee, D.D. Distribution patterns of Tunga penetrans within a community in Trinidad, West Indies. Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene 97(3): 167-170.

Chaniotis, B., A. Psarulaki, G. Chaliotis, G. Garzalo Garcia, T. Gozadinos & Y. Tselentis. Transmission cycle of murine typhus in Greece. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 88(6): 645-647.

Chhabra R.C. & N. Donora. Ectoparasites of poultry in Zimbabwe and their control. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal 25(1): 26 ... 32.

Franc, M. Puces et méthodes de lutte. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des Épizooties 13(4): 1019-1037.

Gibson, M.D., C.R. Young, M.T. Omran, K. Palma, J.F. Edwards & J.A. Rawlings. Lime disease in an experimental cat model. In: Lyme borreliosis. J.S. Axford & D.H.E. Rees (Eds.) Plenum Publishing Corp. pp. 187-199.

Giannetto, S., L. Nobile, A. Virga & G. Canestri Trotti. Scanning electron microscopy of Leptopsylla segnis (Schoenherr, 1811) (Insecta: Aphaniptera). In: Atti XVIII Congresso Nazionale Società Italiana di Parassitologia, Ozzano Emilia, 22-24 guigno 1994. Parassitologia (Roma) 36 (Supplemento 1): 71.

Jeffery, J., P. Oothuman, A. Sinniah, V.J. Bharat, S. Subramaniam, S Murugesu & S. Paramasvaran. Echidnophaga gallinacea (Westwood, 1875) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) from turkey - a new record for peninsular Malaysia. Tropical Biomedicine 11(1): 115-116.

Kobayashi, Y., Y. Ono, T. Okano & K. Buie. Insecticide susceptibility of the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché). Japanese Journal of Sanitary Zoology 45(2): 121-128.

Kobayashi Y., Y. Ono, Y. Yoshioka, T. Okano & K. Buei. Effect of juvenile hormone analogues, pyriproxyfen and methoprene against the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché). Japanese Journal of Sanitary Zoology 45(3): 245-251.

Kumar, A., B.S. Rawat, A.K. Saxina & G.P. Agarwal. Prevalence of ectoparasites on goats in Dehradun (India). Applied Parasitology 35(4): 227-236.

Lane, R.S., D.M.P. Berger, L.E. Casher & W. Burgdorfer. Experimental infection of Columbian black-tailed deer with the Lyme Disease spirochaete. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 30: 20-28.

LIN L.J., YING B.P., M. Sweeney, WANG Z. & HWANG Y. A monoterpene from Umbellularia californica. Phytochemistry 37(3): 905-906.

Manweiler, S.A. Development of the first cat flea biological control product employing the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae. Brighton Crop Protection Conference - Pests and Diseases - 1994: 1005-1012.

Mbise, T.J. Control of rodent fleas using systemic insecticides. Insect Science and its Application 15(2): 235-240.

Medvedev, S.G. Morphological foundations of classification in the Siphonaptera. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 73(1): 22-43. (in Russian)

Medvedev, S. G. Structure of the modified abdominal segments of fleas (Siphonaptera) Entomological Review 73(7): 11-30. (English translation of Medvedev, 1993)

Medvedev, S.G. Morphological basis of the classification of fleas (Siphonaptera). Entomological Review 73(9): 30-51. (English translation of Medvedev, 1994)

Medved, S.G. Morphological foundations of classification in the order Siphonaptera. Abstract. Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences. Saint Petersburg, Russia. 50 pp.

Nolan, K. Flea collars may cause erratic behaviour. Irish Veterinary Journal 47(5): 230.

Ono, Y., Y. Kobayashi, F. Yamashita, F. Okano & T. Buei. The joint toxic action of pyrethroids against the adult cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché). Japanese Journal of Sanitary Zoology 45(4): 353-357.

Opdebeek, J.P. Vaccines against bloodsucking arthropods. Veterinary Parasitology 54: 205-222.

Proctor, E.M. Tunga penetrans acquired while travelling in Africa. Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases 5(2): 82-83.

Pung, O.J., L.A. Durden, C.W. Banks & D.N. Jones. Ectoparasites of opossums and raccoons in southeastern Georgia. Journal of Medical Entomology 31(6): 915-191.

Sleeman, D.P. & P. Smiddy. Bat fleas in Ireland: a review. Irish Naturalist's Journal 24(11): 444-448.

Sleeman, D.P. & P. Smiddy. Records of fleas (Siphonaptera) from Irish mammals and birds. Irish Naturalist's Journal 24(11): 465-467.

Spradbery, J.P., L. Bromley, R. Dixon & L. Tetlow. Tungiasis in Australia: an exotic disease threat. Medical Journal of Australia 161(2): 173.

Stanko, M. Ectoparasites of small mammals (Insectivora, Rodentia) in the area of the Ondava downstream (Eastern Slovakian Lowlands). 1. Fleas (Siphonaptera). Zbornik Vlchodoslov. muzea v Kosichiach, Prir. Vedy 35: 89-96. (in Slovak).

Stanko, M. Fleas synusy (Siphonaptera) of small mammals from the central part of the East-Slovakian lowlands. Biologia (Bratislava) 49(2): 239-246.

Trpis, M. Host-parasite relationships between fleas (Siphonaptera) and bats (Chiroptera) hibernating in ice and limestone caves in Slovakia. Bulletin of the Society for Vector Ecology 19(1): 8-12.

Trpis, M. Host-parasite relationships between fleas (Siphonaptera) and small mammals of the Tatra mountains of Slovakia. Bulletin of the Society for Vector Ecology 19(1): 13-17.

Trpis, M. Host specificity and ecology of fleas (Siphonaptera) of small mammals in mountains of north-central Slovakia. Bulletin of the Society for Vector Ecology 19(1): 18-22.

1995 (List 2)

Angerbjörn, A. & J.E.C. Flux. Lepus timidus. Mammalian Species 495: 1-11.

Beaucournu, J.C. & F. Rodhain. Ctenocephalides grenieri n. sp., a new flea from Cameroon (Insecta, Siphonaptera, Pulicidae). Parasite (Journal de la Socièté Français de Parasitologie) 2(3): 297-300.

Best, T.L. Sciurus nayaritensis. Mammalian Species 492: 1-5.

Best, T.L. Sciurus alleni. Mammalian Species 501: 1-4.

Best, T.L. Spermophilus adocetus. Mammalian Species 504: 1-4.

Best, T.L. Sciurus deppei. Mammalian Species 505: 1-5.

Best, T.L. & S. Riedel. Sciurus arizonensis. Mammalian Species 496: 1-5.

Blaski, M. Pchly drobnych ssaków z wybranchy srodowisk Jury Krakowsko-Czestochowskiej. [The fleas of small mammals from selected environments in the Kraków-Czesto-chowa Jurassic.] Acta Biologica Silesiana 27(44): 64-70.

Childs, J.E., J.N. Mills & G.E. Glass. Rodent-borne hemorrhagic fever virus: a special risk for mammalogists. Journal of Mammalogy 76(3): 664-680.

Chilton, G. & T.D. Galloway. Fleas (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae) from nests of white-crowned sparrows (Zonotricha leucophrys) in southwestern Alberta, Canada. Canadian Entomologist 127(3): 443-444.

Conniff, R. When it comes to the pesky flea, ignorance is bliss. Smithsonian 26(4): 76-85.

Decher, J. & J.R. Choate. Myotis grisescens. Mammalian Species 510: 1-7

Durden, L.A. Fleas (Siphonaptera) of cotton mice on a Georgia barrier island: a depauperate fauna. Journal of Parasitology 80(4): 526-529.

Franc, M. & M.C. Cadiergues. Efficacy of dichlorvos-fenitrothion agaist cat fleas. Revue de Médecine Vétérinare 146(5): 341-344.

Gage, K.L., R.S. Ostfeld & J.G. Olson. Nonviral vector-borne zoonoses associated with mammals in the United States. Journal of Mammalogy 76(3): 695-715.

Gannon, W.L. & R.B. Forbes. Tamias senex. Mammalian Species 502: 1-6.

Gompper, M.E. Nasua narica. Mammalian Species 487: 1-10.

Hinkle, N.C. Natural born killers. Pest Control Technology, July, 1995, 54 ... 116.

Hinkle, N.C., P.G. Koehler & R.S. Patterson. Residual effectiveness of insect growth regulators applied to carpet for control of cat flea (Siphonaptera) larvae. Journal of Economic Entomology 88(4): 903-906.

Hinkle, N.C., P.G. Koehler & R.S. Patterson. Larvicidal effects of boric acid and disodium octoborate tetrahydrate to cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 32(4): 424-427.

Hinkle, N.C, R.W. Wadleigh P.G. Koehler & R.S. Patterson. Mechanism of insecticide resistance in a strain of cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Journal of Entomological Science 30(1): 43-48.

Kinlaw, A. Spilogale putorius. Mammalian Species 511: 1-7.

Kisiluka, L.J.M., D.M. Kambarage, R.W. Matthewman, C.J. Daborn & L.J.S. Harrison. Prevalence of ectoparasites of goats in Tanzania. Journal of Applied Research 7(1): 69-74.

Koehler, P.G. & H.A. Moye. Chlorpyrophos formulation effect on airborne residues following broadcast application for cat flea (Siphonaptera) control. Journal of Economic Entomology 88(4): 918-923.

Kotty, B.K. A new species of the genus Frontopsylla (Siphonaptera: Leptopsyllidae). Entomological Review 74(5): 113-115. (English translation of Kotty, 1992.)

Koutinas, A.F., M.G. Papazahariadou, T.S. Rallis, N.H. Tzivara & C.A. Himonas. Flea species from dogs and cats in northern Greece: environmental and clinical implications. Veterinary Parasitology 58: 109-115.

Krebs, J.W., M.L. Wilson & J.E. Childs. Rabies - Epidemiology, prevention and future research. Journal of Mammalogy 76(3): 681-694.

Larsen, K.S. Laboratory rearing of the squirrel flea Ceratophyllus sciurorum sciurorum with notes on its biology. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 76(3): 241-246.

Lee, S.E., I.P. Johnstone & J.P. Opdebeek. A simple method of rearing fleas for a provocative hypersensitivity test in dogs and cats. Australian Veterinary Journal 72(10): 390-392.

Litvinova, E.A. Description of a new species of the genus Spilotylenchus (Nematoda: Tylenchidae), a parasite of the flea Neopsylla bidentatiformis (Insecta: Siphonaptera). Zoologicheskyi Zhurnal 74(6): 39-44.

Logas, D.B. The cat, the flea and pestacides. Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice 25(4): 801-812.

Mehl, R. Lopper og fluer i pelsedyrfarmer. [Fleas and flies on fur farms.] Norsk Pelsdyrblad 69(3): 22-24.

Merino, S. & J. Potti. Pied flycatchers prefer to nest in clean nest boxes in an area with detrimental nest ectoparasites. Condor 97(3): 828-830.

Mills, J.N., T.L. Yates, J.E. Childs, R.R. Parmenter, T.G. Ksiazek, P.E. Rollin & C.J. Peters. Guidelines for working with rodents potentially infected with hantavirus. Journal of Mammalogy 76(3): 716-722.

Moore, C.M. & P.W. Collins. Urocyon littoralis. Mammalian Species 489: 1-7.

Nishida, Y., C. Haga, K. Oda & T. Hayama. Disinfestation of experimentally infested cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, on cats and dogs by oral lufenuron. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B 57(4): 655-?

Olsson, K. & K. Allander. Do fleas, and/or old nest material influence nestsite preference in hole-nesting passerines? Ethology 101(2): 160-170.

Pasitschniak-Arts, M. & S. Larivière. Gulo gulo. Mammalian Species 499: 1-10.

Patrick, M.J. & W.D. Wilson. Parasites of the Abert's squirrel (Sciurus aberti) and red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in New Mexico. Journal of Parasitology 81(2): 321-324.

Peterson, R.K.D. Insects, disease and military history: The Napoleonic campaigns and historical perception. American Entomologist 41(3): 147-160.

Pullen, S.R. & R.W. Meola. Survival and reproduction of the cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) fed human blood on an artificial membrane system. Journal of Medical Entomology 32(4): 467-470.

Rayment, F. Nests too dry for fleas? The Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologist's Society 54(399): 65.

Richner, H. & P. Heeb. Are clutch and brood size patterns in birds shaped by ectoparasites? Oikos 73(3): 435-442.

Robinson, W.H. Distribution of cat flea larvae in the carpeted household environment. Veterinary Dermatology 6(3): 145-150.

Ross, P.D. Phodopus campbelli. Mammalian Species 503: 1-7.

Verts, B.J. & L.N. Carraway. Phenacomys albipes. Mammalian Species 494: 1-5.

Zimmerman, H. Flea control with permethrin in pregnant minks. Kleintierpraxis 40(6): 484-487.