Flea News Volume 59

Produced by R.E. Lewis, Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011

FLEA NEWS is a biannual newsletter devoted to matters involving insects belonging to the order Siphonaptera (fleas) and related subjects. It is compiled and distributed free of charge by Robert E. Lewis in cooperation with the Department of Entomology at Iowa State University, Ames, IA, and a grant in aid from Wellmark International.

Flea News is mainly bibliographic in nature. Many of the sources are abstracting journals and title pages and not all citations have been checked for completeness or accuracy. Additional information will be provided upon written or e-mail request. Further, recipients are urged to contribute items of interest to the professon for inclusion herein.

This newsletter is now available in electronic format. The preferred method of accessing the electronic version is through the WorldWide Web at the following Universal Resource Locator: https://www.ent.iastate.edu/fleanews/aboutfleanews.html

Note: you can download a PDF file of this issue, suitable for printing, here.


Li Kuei Chen

* 21-October-1999

I am saddened to report that a recent letter from Professor Chin Ta Hsiung of the Gui-yang Medical College informed me of the death of his wife, Li Kuei Chen.

She was born in Shandong Province to a Christian family and received her early education in missionary schools. She graduated from Cheeloo University (which is where she met Ta Hsiung) with a Bachelor of Science degree in Biology. When the Guiy-ang Medical College was established in 1938 she joined the staff as an Assistant in Biology. By 1947 she had been promoted to the rank of Professor. She began her studies of ectoparasites in 1940 and her first publication dealt with those of the local rats, with emphasis on fleas. During this period she sent material to and corresponded with Dr. Karl Jordan who was working at the Rothschild Museum at Tring, Hertsfordshire, England. He encouraged her to pursue the study of the fleas of China in addition to her teaching duties.

Shortly after the formation of the new government in China after World War II administrators in each province were instructed to develop an Institute for Disease Prevention charged with studying the epidemiology and control of diseases endemic to the area. Foremost among these was plague, and where this disease was endemic extensive vector surveys were conducted. There were few Chinese who knew much about the fleas of China at this time and Kuei Chen and a few other biologists such as Liu Chi Ying became pioneers in studies of the indigenous flea fauna. By virtue of her position with the University she was able to attract a number of students who assisted her in her studies. Between 1943 and 1998 she authored or coauthored 93 papers, erected 5 new genera or subgenera and described approximately 90 new species or subspecies.

In 1985 and 1986 she was invited to collaborate with the late Robert Traub in studies on the genus Macrostylophora in China and the islands of South East Asia. Specimens were exchanged and preliminary studies begun, but for various reasons the projects did not come to fruition. In addition to the time spent by her and her husband in Washington, D. C., the couple also visited my laboratory here in Ames and Dr. Cluff Hopla's laboratory in Norman, Oklahoma.

Following is an inventory of the taxa described by Li, and a partial list of her publications. Due to changes in the transliteration system, the latter probably contains a number of errors and any titles taken from it for use elsewhere should be checked against the originals if possible. It should also be noted that after approximately 1980, Kuei Chen sometimes appeared as Gui Zhen.

Genera & Subgenera

Brevictenidia Liu & Li, 1965
Typhlomyopsyllus Li & Huang, 1980
Spuropsylla Li, Xie & Gong, 1982
(Angustus) Li, Xie & Liao, 1980
s. gen. of Cratynius
(Songshupsylla) Li & Traub, 1998
s. gen of Macrostylophora

Species & Subspecies

passerinus Li, 1952. Ceratophyllus
=C. tribulus Jordan, 1926
ochotona Li, 1957.
callida Li & Chin, 1957. Tunga
bispiniformis (Li & Wang, 1958)
ssp. of Aviostivalius klossi
rectodigitus Li & Wang, 1958
ssp. of Stivalius aporus
sinica Li & Wang, 1959.
ssp. of Peromyscopsylla himalaica
elongatus Li & Shen, 1963. Nosopsyllus
affinis Li & Hsieh, 1964. Neopsylla
biseta Li & Hsieh, 1964. Neopsylla
kweiyangensis Li, 1964. Neopsylla
=Neopsylla specialis
minipiensis Li & Wang, 1964.
ssp. of Neopsylla specialis
rhipisoides Li & Wang, 1964. Megabothris
female = Ceratophyllus garei
polyspina Li & Wang, 1964. Stenoponia
exilia Li, Wang & Hsieh, 1964. Macrostylophora
menghaiensis Li, Wang & Hsieh, 1964. ssp. of Macrostylophora hastatus
geniculata Li, 1964. Vermipsylla.
=Vermipsylla alakurt
gigantea Li, 1964. Vermipsylla
= Vermipsylla alakurt
convexa Li, Wang & Wang, 1966. Neopsylla
=Neopsylla abagaitui
paranoma Li, Wang & Wang, 1966. Neopsylla
microcopa Li, Chen & Wei, 1974. Macrstylophora
aeretesites Li, Chen & Wei, 1974. Macrostylophora
megasinus Li & Chen, 1974. Frontopsylla
acutus Li & Chen, 1974. Frontopsylla
=Frontopsylla megasinus
diqiengensis Li & Hsieh, 1974. Frontopsylla
bispiniforma Li, Hsieh & Yang, 1976. Macrostylophora
longisetosa Li & Hsieh, 1977. Neopsylla
clavelia Li & Wei, 1977. Neopsylla
jinshajiangensis Hsieh, Yang & Li, 1978.
longiprojectus Hsieh, Yang & Li, 1978.
intermedius Hsieh, Yang & Li, 1978.
bijiangensis Li, Hsieh & Yang, 1978.
ssp. of Xenodaeria telios
=Xenodaeria telios
zhongdiamensis Lie, Yang & Li, 1979
ssp. of Amphipsylla quadratoides
chaliensis Jie, Yang & Li, 1979
ssp. of Amphipsylla tuta
deqinensis Jie, Yang & Li, 1979
ssp. of Amphipsylla tuta
longidigita Chen, Wei & Li, 1979. Palaeopsylla
obtuspina Chen, Wei & Li, 1979. Palaeopsylla
conjiangensis Li & Huang, 1979. Macrostylophora
jiangkouensis Li & Huang, 1979.
ssp. of Macrostylophora cuii
brivimanubrium Li & Huang, 1979. Paraceras
aprojectus Li, 1979. Ctenophthalmus
stenosinuata Li, 1979. Geusibea
manosus Li, 1979. Amphalius
paoshanensis Li & Yan, 1980. Macrostylophora
yunnanus Li, Xie & Liao, 1980. Cratynius
rotundisinuata Li & Hsieh, 1980. Hystrichopsylla
fimbriata Li & Hsieh, 1980. Neopsylla
elesina Li, 1980. Neopsylla biseta
megaloba Li, 1980. Neopsylla
schismatosa Li, 1980. Neopsylla
ssp of Neopsylla specialis
eothenomus Li & Huang, 1980. Ctenophthalmus
breviprojiciens Li & Huang, 1980. Ctenophthalmus
cavaticus Li & Huang, 1980. Typhlomyopsyllus
diqingensis Li, Xie & Yang, 1980.
ssp. of Amphalius spirataenius
qinghaiensis Li, Xie & Yang, 1980.
ssp. of Amphalius spirataenius
laxisinus Xie, He & Li, 1980. Paraceras
menetus Xie, Chen & Li, 1980. Paraceras
occidentayunnanus Li, Xie & Gong, 1981.
laxilobulus Li, Xie & Gong, 1981. Stivalius
hylomysus Li, Xie & Gong, 1981.
monoseta Li. Xie & Gong, 1982.
quadrasetis Xie, Yang & Li, 1983.
quintuesetis Xie, Yang & Li, 1983.
magnabulga Xie, Yang & Li, 1983.
rhinopitheca Li, 1985. Vermipsylla parallela
affinis Li, 1986. Lentistivalius
deqinensis Xie & Li, 1986. Neopsylla affinis
yunnanensis Li & Yan, 1986. Pariodontis
leizhouensis Li, Huang & Liu, 1986.
Nosopsyllus wualis
hongyangensis Li, Bai & Chen, 1986.
xiei Li, 1987. Stenischia
falsotorosa Wi, Ni. & Li, 1987. Geusibia
nandensis Li, Zeng & Zeng, 1987.
rhombomysus Li, Huang & Sun, 1987.
angustihamulus Li, Zhang & Zeng, 1988
longiprojiciens Chen, Li & Wei, 1988.
rongjianensis Li & Huang, 1990.
Nosopsyllus wualis
boseensis Li & Pan, 1990.
Nosopsyllus wualis
diandongensis Li, Xie & Yang, 1990.
Nosopsyllus wualis
longchuanensis Li, Xie & Wu, 1990.
Nosopsyllus elongatus
puerensis Li, Xie & Yu, 1990.
Nosopsyllus elongatus
yanshanensis Li, Xie & Liao, 1990.
Nosopsyllus elongatus
ailuropoda Jeu, Wang & Li, 1991.
remotus Li, Hai & Pan, 1991.
Syngenopsyllus calceatus
laxiprojectus Li, 1992. Ctenophthalmus
weiningensis Li, 1992. Amphipsylla
guinanensis Wu & Li, 1992. Ceratophyllus
heishuiensis Li & Liu, 1994.
bursiforma Liu, Cai & Li, 1994. Callopsylla
heishuiensis Li, 1996. Macrostylophora
jingdongensis Li, 1996. Macrostylophora


NOTE. I regret that I have not seen the descriptions for the taxa given in boldface above so cannot include the citations in the list given below.
Also, this is not a complete list of Li's publications on fleas. There was a period when communications with Chinese colleagues was not posible. And, as was the case with Liu C.Y., some publications may have been in organs that were unavailable for circulation.

1943. Note on the external parasites of rats in Kweiyang with special reference to the Siphonaptera. Chinese Med. J. 62: 267-272
1951. A description of the female of Neopsylla specialis Jordan, 1932, (Siphonaptera) with remarks on certain structures of the male. Bull. Peking Soc. Nat. Hist. 19: 263-265.
1952. A description of the male of Stenischia mirabilis Jordan, 1932, (Siphonaptera). Bull. Peking Soc. Nat. Hist. 20:113-116.
1952. A new flea from a sparrow nest in Kweiyang. Bull. Peking Soc. Nat. Hist. 20: 205-208.
1955. The discovery of Thaumapsylla breviceps Roths., 1907, and its significance in the fauna of China. Acta Entomol. Sinica 5: 305-308. (Li K.C. & Chin T.H.)
1956. General treatise on fleas. People's Health Publishing House, Peking. 152 pp.
1957. A brief survey of the fleas of insectivores and rodents in western Yunnan. Acta Zool. Sinica, Shanghai 9: 25-33.
1957. Tunga callida sp. nov., a new species of sandflea from Yunnan. Acta Entomol. Sinica, Peiking 7: 113-120. (Li K.C. & Chin T.H.)
1957. A new species of flea, Echidnophaga ochotona sp. nov. Acta Entomol. Sinica, Peking 7: 121-124.
1958. The fleas of the genus Stivalius J. et R., 1922, (Siphonaptera) from China. Acta Entomol. Sinica 8: 67-75. (Li K.C., & Wang D.C. )
1959. Discovery of Peromyscopsylla himalaica (Roths., 1915) in China and comparison of its three subspecies. Acta Entomol. Sinica 9: 548-553. (Li K.C. & Wang D.C.)
1961. Records of Acropsylla girshami Traub, 1950, (Siphonaptera) in China, with a discussion of the status of the species in the genus. Acta Entomol. Sinica 10: 505-512. (Li K.C. & Chin T.H.)
1963. The oriental cat flea and its relatives. Guiyang Med. School Annual 1963: 52-56.
1963. A new flea of the genus Nosopsyllus Jordan, 1933, (Siphonaptera). Acta Entomol. Sinica 12: 354-356. (Li K.C. & Shen D.Y.)
1964. The study of the wormlike flea in northwest China. Acta Parasitol. Sinica 1: 91-100.
1964. Two new records of Palaeopsylla Wagner in China with a description of P. incurva Jordan. Acta Entomol. Sinica 13: 768-770. (Li K.C. & Hsieh P.C.)
1964. A study on the classification of the stevensi group of the genus Neopsylla from China (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae), with descriptions of new species and subspecies. Acta Entomol. Sinica 13: 212-230. (Li K.C., Hsieh P.C. & Wang D.C.)
1964. A new species of the genus Megabothris Jordan, 1933 ,(Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae). Acta Zool. Sinica 16: 247-250. (Li K.C. & Wang D.C.)
1964. A new species of the genus Stenoponia J. et R., 1911, (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae). Acta Entomol. Sinica 13: 615-623. (Li K.C. & Wang D.C.)
1964. A study on the genus Macrostylophora in China (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae). Acta Zool. Sinica 16: 479-486. (Li K.C., Wang D.C. & Hsieh P.C.)
1965. The discovery of Aenigmopsylla mikulini Schwartz in China and the establishment of Brevictenidia gen. nov. (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae). Acta Entomol. Sinica 17: 414-420. (Liu T.S. & Li K.C.)
1966. Two new species of Neopsylla Wagner (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae). Acta Zootaxon. Sinica 3: 255-259. (Li K.C., Wang D.C. & Wang H.E.)
1974. A study on the genus Macrostylophora in China (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae). Acta Zool. Sinica 16: 479-486. (Li K.C. , Wang D.C. & Hsieh P.C.)
1974. Three new species and subspecies of Frontopsylla (Siphonaptera: Leptopsyllidae). Acta Entomol. Sinica 17: 339-346. (Li K.C., Chen N.Y. & Hsieh P.C.)
1974. On two new species of Macrostylophora (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae). Acta Entomol. Sinica 17: 112-116. (Li K.C., Chen N.Y. & Wei S. F.)
1974. A study on the teratology of fleas. Acta Entomol. Sinica 16: 154-162. (Li K.C. & Wang D.C.)
1976. A new species of the genus Macrostylophora (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae) Acta Entomol. Sinica 19: 345-347. (Li K.C., Hsieh P.C. & Yang H.T.)
1977. On two new species of the setosa group of the genus Neopsylla Wagner, from southwest China (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae). Acta Entomol. Sinica 20: 455-460. (Li K.C., Hsieh P.C. & Wei S.F.)
1978. The first record of the genus Xenodaeria Jordan, 1932, from China with description of a new subspecies (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae). Acta Entomol. Sinica 21: 332-334. (Li K.C., Hsieh P.C. & Yang H.T.)
1978. Three new species of the genus Paradoxopsyllus Miyajima & Koidzumi, 1909, (Siphonaptera: Leptopsyllidae). Acta Entomol. Sinica 21: 91-98. (Hsieh P.C., Yang X.S. & Li K.C.)
1979. Siphonaptera collected in Gongshan, Yunnan. I. Entomotaxonomia 1: 91-102.
1979. New species of Palaeopsylla Wagner, 1903, from Szechuan, with a discussion of the genus (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae). Acta Entomol. Sinica 22: 349-354. (Chen N.Y., Wei S.F. & Li K.C.)
1979. Three new subspecies of Amphipsylla from Yunnan (Siphonaptera: Leptopsyllidae). Acta Zootaxon. Sinica 4: 55-56. (Jie B.G., Yang X.D. & Li K.C.)
1979. On some new species and new records of fleas from China (Siphonaptera). Acta Zootaxon. Sinica 4: 399-407. (Li K.C. & Huang K.P.)
1979. A description of the female of Neopsylla biseta Li et Hsieh, 1964, with remarks on certain structures of the male. Entomotaxonomia 1: 107-110. (Xie B.Q. & Li K.C.)
1980. Fleas of Typhlomys cinereus in China. Acta Acad. Med. Guiyang 5: 130-131.
1980. Fleas of Hylomys suillus in China. Acta Acad. Med. Guiyang 5: 128-129.
1980. Checklist of fleas from Taiwan Province. Acta Acad. Med. Guiyang 2: 194.
1980. Present studies on Paradoxopsyllus - classification, distribution, morphology and parasites. Bull. Guiyang Med. College 5: 1-7.
1980. On the species-groups, zoogeographical divisions and host relationships of the Chinese Macrostylophora Ewing, 1929, (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae). Acta Acad. Med. Guiyang 5: 108-113.
1980. Siphonaptera collected in Gongshan, Yunnan. II. Entomotaxonomia 2: 177-184.
1980. A new species of the genus Hystrichopsylla Taschenberg, 1880, with a discussion concerning its subgenera (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae). Acta Entomol. Sinica 23: 213-215. (Li K.C. & Hsieh P.C.)
1980. A survey on fleas from Kuankuoshui, a natural reserve in Guizhou Province. Acta Acad. Med. Guiyang 5: 114-122. (Li K.C. & Huang G.P.)
1980. A new species and subgenus of the genus Cratynius Jordan, 1933, (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae). Entomotaxonomia 2: 41-45. (Li K.C., Xie B.Q. & Liao H.R.)
1980. A new subspecies of Amphalius spirataenius Liu, Wu & Wu, 1966, with a discussion on its subspecies in China (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae). Acta Acad. Med. Guiyang 5: 123-127. (Li K.C., Xie B.Q. & Yang X.D.)
1980. A new Macrostylophora from Yunnan (Ceratophyllidae: Siphonaptera). Acta Entomol. Sinica 23: 76-78. (Li K.C. & Yan X.C.)
1980. On two new species of Paraceras Wagner, from southwest China (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae). Acta Acad. Med. Guiyang 5: 137-144. (Xie B.Q, He J.H., Chen R.H. & Li K.C.)
1981. On the species-groups, zoogeographical divisions and host relationships of the Chinese Macrostylophora Ewing, 1929, (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae). Entomotaxonomia 3: 297-303.
1981. A new genus and three new species of fleas from Kuankuoshui Natural Reserve in Guizhou Province. Acta Zootax. Sinica 6: 291-297. (Li K.C. & Huang G.P.)
1981. Three new species of the family Pygiopsyllidae from China (Siphonaptera). Acta Zootaxon. Sinica 6: 402-408. (Li K.C., Xie B.Q. & Gong Z.D.)
1982. General description of the family Ceratophyllidae - Classification, geographic distribution and host/parasite relationships and an investigation of pathology problems. Acta Acad. Med. Guiyang 7: 1-6.
1982. Description of a new genus and species of ceratophyllid flea from western Yunnan, China (Siphonaptera). Entomotaxonomia 4: 23-26. (Li K.C., Xie B.Q. & Gong Z.D.)
1982. Siphonaptera. In: Insects of Xizang. Vol. II. Science Press. Beijing, PRC. pp. 283-336 in Chinese, pp. 337-340, in English. (Liu C.Y., Wu H.Y., Liu Q., Li K.c. & Wu F.l.)
1983. On three new species of the genus Ischnopsyllus Westwood and the female of I. delectabilis Smit (Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae). Entotaxonomia 5: 113-119. (Xie B.Q., Yang D.Q. & Li K.C.)
1984. Fleas in Guizhou Province: their host relationships and the characteristics of their zoogeography. Development of Science in Guizhou Province. pp. 205-212.
1984. An emendation of the female of Macrostylophora paoshanensis Li et Yan, 1980, (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae). Acta Zootaxon. Sinica (Xie B.Q. & Li K.C.)
1985. A new flea from the golden monkey Rhinopithecus bieti Milne-Edwards from northwestern Yunnan. Zool. Res. 6: 243-248.
1986. On a new species and a new record of the genus Lentistivalius Traub, 1972, (Siphonaptera: Pygiopsyllidae). Entomotaxonomia 8: 9-12.
1986. A new species of the genus Neopsylla from Ningxia. Sichuan J. Zool. 5: 1-3. (Li K.C., Bai X.L. & Chen B.F.)
1986. Description of a new subspecies of Neopsylla affinis (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae) Acta Zootaxon. Sinica 11: 327-329. (Xie, B.Q. & Li K.C.)
1986. Fauna Sinica. Insecta. Siphonaptera. Academia Sinica Science Press, Beijing, China. 1334 pp. (Liu C.Y., Wu H.Y., Liu Q., Li K.C., Wang D.Q. & Xie B.Q.)
1987. A new species of Stenischia (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae). Entomotaxonomia 9: 85-89.
1987. On a new species of Macrostylophora Ewing from Gansu (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae). Entomotaxonomia 8: 265-268. (Li K.C., Zhang R.G. & Zeng Y.C.)
1987. A new species of Macrostylophora Ewing from Guangxi (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae). Acta Zootaxon. Sinica 12: 415-417. (Li K.C., Zeng F. & Zeng Y.C.)
1987. A new species of the genus Paradoxopsyllus Miyajima & Koidzumi, 1909, from Bayannur, Inner Mongolia. Rept. Local Dis. 2: 19-21. (Li K.C., Huang G.P. & Sun Q.)
1987. A new species of Geusibia Jordan, 1932, from southeastern Qinghai (Siphonaptera: Leptopsyllidae). Acta Biol. Plateau Sinica 6: 93-95. (Wu W.z., Ni G.x. & Li K.C.)
1988. A new species of Ctenophthalmus from Sichuan (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae). Sichuan J. Zool. 7: 3-5. (Chen N.Y., Li K.C. & Wei X.R.)
1990. On the Oriental Nosopsyllus fleas of China: descriptions of new subspecies and discussion of the classification (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae). J. Guiyang Med. Coll. 15: 161-173. (Li K.C. & Xie B.Q.)
1991. A new record of Syngenopsyllus in China with description of a new subspecies of S. calceatus (Rothschild, 1905) (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae). J. Guiyang Med. College 16: 237-243. (Li K.C., Hai B.Q. & Pan X.J.)
1991. A new flea of the genus Chaetopsylla from the giant panda. Sichuan J. Zool. 10: 7-9. (Jeu M.H., Wang D.Q. & Li K.C.)
1992. The anoplura and Siphonaptera of Guizhou. Guizhou Science and Technology Publishing House. (Chin T.H. & Li K.C.)
1994. A new species of Hystrichopsylla (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae) from Beishui, Sichuan. Entomotaxomia 16: 269-271. (Li K.C. & Liu L.Z.)
1995. A new species of the genus Syngenopsyllus Traub, from Mt. Emei, Sichuan (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae). Acta Zootax. Sinica 20: 102-106.
1995. On the geographical distribution, host preferences and diagnostic characters of Neopsylla hongyangensis Li, Bai & Chen (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae) 38: 161-165. (Li K.C., Wu W.Z. & Zhang R.Q.)
1996. Two new species of the genus Macrostylophora (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae) Acta Zootax. Sinica 21: 239-243.
1996. Description of three new subspecies of Ctenophthalmini (Sinoctenophthalmus) and discussion (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae) Animal Taxology 2: 110-117. (Li K.C., Ceng Y.C. & Ceng F.Z.)
1998. Description of Songshupsylla, a new subgenus of Macrostylophora (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae), with a discussion of it species groups. J. Med. Entomol. 35: 396-398. (Li K.C. & R. Traub)


Ms Amoret Brandt, M.Sc. has been appointed as Assistant Entomologist in the Department of Entomology of the Natural History Museum in London. Her main assignment is to update the "Handbook of British Fleas" originally written by F. G. A. M. Smit in 1957. She will include distribution data for the British fauna and produce an identification key on CD rom as well as engage in some curation and indexing activities. Ms. Theresa Howard will continue to look after loans and visitors to the collection. Both can be reached at:
Department of Entomology
The Natural History Museum
Cromwell Road, London SW7 5bd
Tel. (020) 7942 5036
Fax. (020) 7942 5229
E-mail A.Brandt@nhm.ac.uk
and T.Howard@nhm.ac.uk

I have just received word of the passing of Mrs. Caroline Ernestine Smit, wife of Mr. F.G.A.M. Smit. Condolences may be addressed to Mr. Smit at:
4 Glamis Gardens
Longthorpe, Peterborough PE3 9PQ

Dr. Robert Pilgrim has asked that the following be included in this issue.


I am anxious to examine a copy of a publication entitled "Technical Bulletin on Siphotrol 10: Vet-Kem, Dallas, TX 1981". This was cited as a reference in Bledsoe, Fadok and Bledsoe (1982 J. Am. Animal Hospital Assn. 18: 415-422.), in which the authors state (p. 418) "Methoprene acts on the fourth instar larvae;..."
Because reference to fourth instar larvae in fleas is extraordinary I wish to review the source of the statement. Correspondence to the authors, and to Dr. Linda Medleau, who subsequently cited the statement (1983 Internat. J. Dermatol. 22: 378-379) has all been unanswered. Numerous attempts to source the bulletin have failed, as the original manufacturers and/or their associates (Novartis, Sandoz, Zoecon, Ciba-Geigy) are unable to locate a copy.
This is an appeal to anyone who has access to a copy of the 1981 Bulletin to lend it to me to photocopy the relevant pages. The copy will be returned proptly.
Dr. R. L. C. Pilgrim
Department of Zoology
University of Canterbury,
Private Bag 4800

Flea Identification from DNA Sequences

We are developing a DNA-based method of flea identification to make it possible for a public health worker or PCR technician to make unambiguous identifications without help from and entomologist. The method also should be helpful for identifying damaged adults or larvae which are hard to identify by their morphology. Recent advances in PCR technology, inexpensive automated DNA sequencing, and web databases should make this goal attainable. We are combining the experience of a veteran flea entomologist with a few tricks from a modern molecular biologist.
So far we have examined 14 flea species which we collected or which were furnished to us by collaborators. Adults or larvae were collected in 98% ethanol or 70% isopropyl and were stored at room temperature. Single insects removed from alcohol were incubated overnight in a mixture of KOH and Joy dishwashing detergent, then extracted once with phenolchloroform. This method preserves the extracted flea exoskeleton for morphological identification. The aqueous phase of the phenolchloroform extract was alcohol precipitated and redissolved in a small volume of low salt buffer. This very crude flea DNA preparation was then used without further purification as a template for PCR. The primers were ITS 3 & 4 which recognize ribosomal DNA in nearly all eukaryotes and bracket the ITS 2 region which codes for nonconserved spacer RNA between 5.8S and 28S RNA. The Gen-EMBL DNA sequence database has several ITS 2 entries from insects, but as yet none from fleas.
We found that the ITS 3 & 4 products of fleas were 350-600 nucleotides long with some length variations between species in low resolution agarose gel electrophoresis. PCR products were gelpurified and sequenced with the primer ITS 3 by the University of Utah Sequencing Facility using ABI automated equipment (at $10 per sequence). The ITS 3 & 4 products had, as expected, conserved sequences (of 107 and 50 nucleotides) at the two ends, in 5.8S and 28S RNA sequences respectively. The conserved sequences had almost no variation between species but fortunately the same PCR products had ample variation in the remaining internal nonconserved sequences, so that the 14 flea species examined were distinguishable by DNA sequence of ITS DNA.
The internal nonconserved ITS sequences had weak similarities with other insects but had strong similarities among fleas. One flea species had two sizes of ITS 3 & 4 products which were identical except for internal deletions in the smaller product. In another instance we recovered two ITS 3 & 4 products from larvae but one of the two products was not flea DNA since unlike flea DNA it matched yeast sequences in the Gen-EMBL DNA sequence database. Flea larvae have internal fungi which yield their own ITS products but so far the fungal products have been easy to separate by electrophoresis.
Using DNA sequence as a criterion, we found that fleas from the canyon mouse, Peromyscus crinitus, collected at one site in southern Utah were different from fleas from the same species of rodent at two other sites, one in southern Utah and one in eastern Nevada.
We are grateful to the University of Utah Research Committee for financial support.
Theodore Gurney, Jr. & Robert Elbel
Department of Biology
University of Utah
Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0840


Dr. Eustorgio Méndez has informed me that his book, entitled "Insectos y otros artrópodos de importancia médica y veterinaria" is now available. Following is the author's description.
"Este libro constituye una modesta pero razonable fuente de información sobre diversos grupos de insectos, arácnidos y oteros artrópodos que en anlguna forma astán relacionados con problemas sanitarios del ser humano y de muchos animales domésticos y silvestres. Por consiguiente, su objectivo es proporcionar una adecuada comprensión de los invertebrados tratados, sus cualidades anatómicas generales, ecología y hábitos, mencionando también someramente ciertas enfermedades que son transmitidas por un número de ellos. Además, entre otras facetas relevantes contiene un glosario, un índice general y una lista de casi todos los trabajos consultados, así como 160 ilustraciones a pluma, la mayoría de las cuales son totalmente originales. Puede servir como un marco de referencia para algunos profesionales de la medicina humana, veterinarios, entomólogos, zoólogos, parasitólogos, ingenieros sanitarios, biólogos de vida silvestre y naturalistas del Continente Americano y de otros territorios del mundo.
"El contenido de esta obra no es rigurosamente técnico, por lo que, asimismo, es apropiado y de utilidad para aquellos lectores aficionados que se sientan atraidos por un tema transcendental que requiere una amplia difusión."
Its price is $30.00 US, plus $5.50 Air Mail postage. Interested parties may contact Dr. Méndez at
Apartado 870317, Zona 7, Panamá
República de Panamá

Mammals of the Eastern United States. Third Edition. John O. Whitaker, Jr & W. J. Hamilton, Jr., 1998. i-xi, 583 pp. Comstock Publishing Associates, Cornell University Press, Ithaca & London. ISBN 0-8014-3475-0.
As an aspiring young mammalogist in the late 1940's the first edition of this book, published in 1943 and authored solely by W. J. Hamilton became the nucleus of what grew to be my relatively large mammalogical library. Although primitive by today's standards it was on the cutting edge of the science at the time, forming a firm foundation for a subsequent edition in 1979 co-authored by Hamilton and Whitaker. In this third edition the content has been almost entirely rewritten, the species accounts expanded and updated and additional sections added.
The first 22 pages introduce the reader to basic concepts and techniques employed by students of mammalogy and outline the goals of the author (Whitaker, Hamilton died in 1990) in presenting the species accounts. The individual accounts are broken down into the following headings: description, measurements, distribution, habitat, habits, food and feeding, reproduction and development, population characteristics, enemies, parasites and diseases, relations to humans, areas for further work, subspecies and literature.
Taxonomically the author recognizes 11 orders, 26 families, 68 genera and 121 species as occurring in the United States east of the Mississippi River. Included in this total are feral dogs, pigs, house cats and horses, as well as small isolated populations of Rhesus monkeys in Florida. Also included are the Fallow, Sika and Sambar deer. Established populations of Fallow deer are cited in Alabama, Georgia, Maryland and Tennessee. Two small populations of Sika deer are located in Maryland and Wisconsin. Sambar occur only in St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge, St. Vincent Island, Florida.
The book concludes with an Appendix of Endangered and Extirpated Species, including a tabular presentation, a glossary, a guide to further reading and a brief index. In addition to black and white illustrations and distribution maps, the volume includes 15 plates containing 48 color photographs of some of the species. REL

Walker's Mammals of the World. Sixth Edition. Ronald M. Nowak. 1999. Volume I, i-li, 1-836, index lv-lxx. Volume II, i-x, 837-1936. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore and London. ISBN 0-8081-5989-9. US $99.95 plus postage.
Since the first edition of Mammals of the World was published in 1964, with Ernest P. Walker as its senior author, this has been a work in progress. Over the years the various editions have been revised and enlarged, first by John Paradiso (2nd & 3rd) then by Nowak and Paradiso (4th) and finally by Nowak alone (5th & 6th).
The classification followed in these volumes is mainly that of Wilson and Reeder, 1993 (reviewed in FN 46: 501) and the total number of categories are: 28 orders, 146 families, 1,192 genera and 4,809 species. Five generic accounts from the 5th edition have been deleted but 81 new generic accounts have been added. This edition also includes generic accounts for extinct genera known to have lived within the last 5,000 years. The point is made that most of these inhabited the West Indies, islands in the Mediterranean and Madagascar and are thought to have been extirpated through human agencies. The point is also made that the most recent IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals (Baillie & Groombridge, 1996) lists 1,096 full species of mammals, nearly one fourth of all known species, as "critically endangered" (169) "endangered" (315) or "vulnerable" (612). The IUCN also lists an additional 220 mammal subspecies that are not components of the listed species in these categories as "conservation dependent" or "near threatened" When these are added the total is closer to one half than one fourth of the world's total.
This edition is organized in much the same way that the fifth edition was structured. After the Forward and Preface there is a 28 page table, arranged phylogenetically, in which the gross world distribution of all of the genera is presented. Volume I contains accounts for the orders Monotremata through the Carnivora. Volume II includes the remaining orders from the Pinnipedia through the Macroscelidea, followed by 172 pages of Literature Cited, averaging ~50 citations per page, and 15 pages of index. Literature coverage extends to approximately 1995, although many references were published as recently as 1997.
Each generic account includes the name of the order, family, genus, author and date of description. This is followed by the common name of the group, if it has one, and a list of recognized species arranged by subgenera where these have been erected. Following each species name is an abridged distribution. Individual generic accounts vary in length and organization depending upon the amount of information available. Large, well-known genera are treated quite extensively. This is particularly the case with large game animals.
In 1992 (F.N. 44: 455) I ended my review of the fifth edition with the following: "All in all, these volumes constitute a superbe exposition and it is difficult to imagine how they could be improved short of printing the photographs in color. The cost of publications has been accelerating at an alarming rate recently, and against this melancholy landscape these volumes constitute one of the best values in publication today." The fifth edition was priced at $89.95 plus shipping. With 307 additional pages, this is still "one of the best values in publication today" and Dr. Nowak is to be congratulated for the fruits of his labors. REL


Although it may not be obvious from the titles, citations included here pertain to fleas and the zoonoses associated with them. No particular effort has been made to search the medical and veterinary literature and the emphasis here is on the taxonomy, systematics and general biology of the order.
It should be understood that all Russian and Chinese citations listed here are in Russian or Chinese, although they may have summaries or abstracts in English or some other language. Additional information is available upon request (including e-mail) and recipients are urged to report citations of articles on Siphonaptera, particularly those published in rare sources or those in journals peripheral to the field of Entomology.
1993 (List 10)

Pashley, D.P., B.A. McPheron & E.A. Zimmer. Systematics of holometabolous insect orders based on 18S ribosomal RNA. Molecular Phylogenetic Evolution 2: 132-142.
1994 (List 9)

LIU Jing-yuan, WANG Dun-qing & Yang Qiren. Description of a new subspecies of Doratopsylla coreana (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 19: 243-245. (D. c. hubeiensis)
1995 (List 8)

LIU Jing-yuan & WANG Dun-qing. A new species of Typhlomyopsyllus Li et Huang, 1980, from Hubei Province, China (Siphonaptera: Leptopsyllidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 20: 243-245. (T. bashanensis)
1996 (List 8)

WANG Dun-qing & LIU Jing-yuan. A new species of Ceratophyllus from Hubei Province (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae) Acta Entomologica Sinica 39: 90-93. (C. (C.) wui )
1997 (List 6)

Geevarghese, G., D.T. Mourya, P.S. Shetty & M.D. Gokhale. Note on the fleas of small mammals in Beed District, Maharashtra State, India. Journal of Communicable Diseases 29: 361-362.
GONG Zheng-da & FENG Xi-guang. A new species of Palaeopsylla from Yunnan, China (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae). Acta Entomologica Sinica 40: 79-81. (P. talpae )
GONG Zheng-da, DUAN Xing-de, FENG Xi-guang, XIE Shu, SHANG Yumin DU Baohan & DUAN Baio. Small mammals in the Cangshan and Erhai natural reserves. Zoological Research 18: 197-204.
Larsen, K.S., H. Leirs & J. Ledal. Palatability and toxicity tests of fipronil as a systemic insecticide in a rodenticide bait for rat and flea control. Acta Parasitológia Portuguesa 5: 32.
Larsen, K.S. & A.M. Rasmussen. Fri os lopperne. Rad og Resultater 10: 2-4.
LIU Jing-yuan. A new species of Chaetopsylla Kohaut, 1903, from Hubei Province, China (Siphonaptera: Vermipsyllidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 40: 82-85. (C. wangi )
Medvedev, S.G. Host parasite relationships of fleas (Siphonaptera). II. Entomologicheskoe Obozreni 76: 755-769.
Mohebali, M., H. Rezai, A. Farahnak & A. Nootash. A survey of the parasitic fauna (helminths and ectoparasites) of rodents in the Meshkinhar District of northwest Iran. Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran 52: 23-25.
QI Yi-ming & HE Jin-hou. Morphological description of the larvae of Frontopsylla spadix spadix and their comparison with the larvae of three species of Frontopsylla (Siphonaptera: Leptopsyllidae). Acta Entomologica Sinica 40: 388-392.
QI Yi-ming. Comparisons of esterase isoenzyme of different developmental stages of three flea species. Acta Parasitologica et Medica Entomologica Sinica 4: 170-177.
QI Yi-ming et al. A study on the comparison of esterase isoenzyme in different developmental stages of Xenopsylla cheopis Rothschild. Journal of the Guiyang Medical College 22: 326-328.
1998 (List 4)

Anonymous. SWEPAR triennial report 1995-1997. Meddelanden fran Parasitologen No 1998: 2. 51 pp.
Azad, A.F. & C.B. Beard. Rickettsial pathogens and their arthropod vectors. Emerging Infectious Diseases 4: 179-186.
Barros-Battesti, D.M., M. Arzua, P. M. Linardi, J.R. Botelho & I.J. Sbalqueiro. Interrelationships between ectoparasites and wild rodents from Tijucas do Sul, State of Paraná, Brazil. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 93: 719-725.
Beaucournu, J.C. & J.F. Noblet. Les puces de chauvesouris dans les Alpes at PréAlps françaises (Insecta: Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae). Le Rhinolophe 13: 29-34.
Benesi, F.J., M. de C. Pereira, C.S.C. de Sa, D.L. Howard, C.M.C. Teixeira & C.E. Larsson. Cat flea infestation in a newborn Jersey calf in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Vetérnaria 7: 157-160.
Bicho, C.L. & P.B. Ribeiro. Pictorial key to the main species of Siphonaptera of medical and veterinary importance in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Vetérnaria 7: 47-53.
Bowen Z. & J. Read. Population and demographic patterns of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus ) at Roxby Downs in arid South Australia and the influence of rabbit haemorrhagic disease. Wildlife Research 25: 655-662.
Claps, G.L., A.G. Autino & A.M. Saralegui. Insectos ectoparásitos de dos especies de Myotis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) del Uruguay. Neotrópica 44: 113-114.
Eckard, D. The multimammate mouse, Mastomys coucha [Praomys coucha ] (Smith, 1936) - its veterinary and medical implications for Kwa-Zulu Natal. Durban Museum Novitates 23: 61-63.
Franc, M. & M.C. Caiergues. Biological information necessary to establish control programs against fleas in cats and dogs. Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Vétérinaire Pratique de France 82: 461-472.
GONG Zheng-da. A new species of the genus Stenischia from Mt. Yunling of West Yunnan, China (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae). Acta Entomologica Sinica 41: 194-196. (S. brevis )
GONG Zheng-da. Description of the female of Palaeopsylla talpae (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae) Entomotaxonomia 20: 283-284.
Hastriter, M.W. & R. Guerrero. A review of the bat flea genus Hormopsylla (Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 100: 247-251.
Hendrix C.M., J.S. Wohl, B.C. Bloom, S.R. Ostrowski & L.T. Benefield. International travel with pets. Part III. Recognizing pathogens. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Precticing Veterinarian 20: 1342-1348.
Kordick, D.L. & E.B. Breitschwerdt. Infections and carriership of Bartonella and Afipia species in veterinary medicine. In: Bartonella and Afipia species emphasizing Bartonella henselae. A. Schmidt (Ed.)
Kusiluka L.J.M., D.M. Kanbarage, L.J.S. Harrison, C.J. Daborn & R.W. Mathewman. Causes of morbidity and mortality in goats in the Morogoro District, Tanzania: The influence of management. Small Ruminant Research 29: 167-172.
LI Zhong-lai & ZHANG Yeo-xing. The yearly dynamic relationship between burrow nest flea index and populations of Citellus dauricus. Acta Entomologica Sinica 41: 77-84.
LI Zhong-lai & ZHANG Yao-xing. The yearly dynamic relationship between burrow track flea index and populations of Citellus dauricus. Acta Entomologica Sinica 41: 396-400.
LIU Jing-yuan & MA Li-ming. Description of the female of Doratopsylla coreana hubeiensis Liu, Wang et Yang, 1994 (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae) Acta Entomologica Sinica
Miller, D.S, B.G. Campbell, R.G. McLean, E. Campos & D.F. Covell. Parasites of the swift fox (Vulpes velox ) from southeastern Colorado. Southwestern Naturalist 43: 476-479.
Mourya, G., G. Geevarghese, M.D. Gokhale, P.S. Shetty, P. Kandasamy, K.V. Shantha, N.C. Appavoo, B.M. Dama & P.P. Doke. Present insecticide susceptibility status of Xenopsylla cheopis from Beed District, Maharashtra State, India. Entomon 23: 211-217.
Nemec, F. The instars of Ctenophthalmus agyrtes s.l. (Siphonaptera: Ctenophthalmidae) in the nests and hair of species of small wild animals. Erica (Plzen) 1998: 64-84. (in Czech)
Pampiglione, S., M. Trentini, F.M. Gentili, J.L.X Mendes, C. Pampiglione & F. Rivasi. Tunga penetrans (Insecta: Siphonaptera) in pigs in Sao Tome (Equatorial Africa): epidemiological, clinical, morphological and histopathological aspects. Revue d'E-levage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux 51: 201-205.
Preisler, J. Ectoparasites of squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris ) Linné, 1758 in the Czech Republic. Erica (Plzen) 1998: 85-86 (in Czech)
Prelaud, P. & E. Guaguere. Diagnosis of flea allergy dermatitis. Pratique Médicale & Chirurgicale de Animal de Campagnie 33(Supplement 3): 373-387.
QI Yiming & HU Xiao-ling. Morphological description of the larvae of Ctenophthalmus quadratus (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae) Entomologica Sinica 5: 143-148.
QIAN Cun-bing, ZHANG Xiao-xue & Jiang Wan-wu. A test of the temporal retention of Yersinis pastis [sic.] in the fleas Frontopsylla ellatoides elatoides and Neopsylla mana in a non-endemic area of plague. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 13: 26-27.
Ramprabhu, R., M. Subramanian, S. Prathaban & P. Dhanapalan. Therapeutic efficacy of closantel against ectoparasites in dogs. Cheiron 27: 124-131.
Rasoamanana, B., J.A. Dromigny, J.M. Duplantier, M. Ratsimba & S. Chanteau. Surveillance bactériologique et sérologique de la peste murine dans la ville a'Antananarivo (quartier d'Isotry) en 1995. Archives de l'Institut Pasteur de Madagascar 64: 21-24.
Ratovonjato, J. Sensibilité Xenopsylla cheopis aux insecticides on milieu urbain à Madagascar. Archives de l'Institut Pasteur de Madagascar 64: 25-28
Ratovonjato J., J.B. Duchemin, J.M. Duplantier, S. Laventure, P. Rabarison, S. Chanteau & J.F.Roux. Assessment of the susceptibility of Malagasy fleas to insecticides in urban areas. Preliminary results. Archives de l'Institut Pasteur de Madagascar 64: 29-33
Ratsifasoamanana, L. D.R. Rabeson, B. Rasoamanana, J. Randriambelosoa, J.F. Roux & S. Chanteau. La peste: malade réémergente à Madagascar. Archives de l'Institut Pasteur de Madagascar 64: 12-14.
Scharf, W.C. Fleas (Siphonaptera) from migrating owls: passengers on the journey. Michigan Birds and Natural History 5: 167-171.
Scharf, W.C. & P.E. Lederle. Additional Siphonaptera records from small mammals in the central Upper Peninsula of Michigan. The Great Lakes Entomologist 31: 195-198.
Shangula, K. Successful plague control in Namibia. South African Medical Journal 88: 1428-1430.
Striese, D. Beitrag zur Flohfauna (Insecta: Siphonaptera) der Zwergmaus, Micromys minutus Pallas, 1778. Abhandlungen und Berichte des Naturkundemuesums Görlitz 70: 135-138.
Treviño-Villarreal, J., I.M. Berk, A Aguirre & W.E. Grant. Survey of sylvatic plague in the Mexican prairie dog (Cynomys mexicanus) Southwest Naturalist 43: 147-154.
1999 (List 2)

Beaucournu, J.C. & L.A. Durden. Neopsylla musseri n. sp. (Siphonaptera: Ctenophthalmidae), puce nouvelle du Sulawesi Central (Indonesie). Parasite 6: 163-167.
Beaucournu, J.C. & V.V. Sountsov. New fleas from Vietnam. Ctenophthalmidae and Pygiopsyllidae (Siphonaptera). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 104: 77-83.
Bille N. & Christensen, (Eds.). Danish Pest Infestation Laboratory Annual Report, 1998. Lyngby, Denmark. 110 pp.
Chomel, B.B., E.T. Carlos, R.W. Kasten, K. Yamamoto, CHANG Chaochin, R.S. Carlos, M.V. Abenes & C. M. Pajares. Bartonella henslae and Bartonella clarridgeiae infection in domestic cats from the Philippines. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 60: 593-597.
Clark, F. Prevalence of the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis and oocyte development during autumn and winter in Leicester City, U.K. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 13: 217-218.
Clark, F., D. Deadman, M. Greenwood, K. Larsen & S. Pudnay. Effects of feeding on the Circadian rhythm of Ceratophyllus s. sciurorum (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae). Journal of Vector Ecology 24: 78-82.
Conroy, C.J. & J.A. Cook. Microtus xanthognathus. Mammalian Species 627: 1-5.
Davis, R.M. Use of orally administered chitin inhibitor (Lufenuron) to control flea vectors of plague on ground squirrels in California. Journal of Medical Entomology 36: 562-567.
Dean, S.R., R.W. Meola, S.M. Meola, H. Sittertz-Bhatkar & R. Schenker. Mode of action of lufenuron in adult Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 36: 486-492.
Driessen, M.M. & R.K. Ross. Pseudomys higginsi. Mammalian Species 623: 1-5.
Engelthaler, D.M., K.L. Gage, J.A. Montenieri, M. Chu & L.G. Carter. PCR detection of Yersinia pestis in fleas: comparison with mouse inoculation. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 37: 1980-1984.
FAN Suo-ping & LIU Guo-cheng. Investigation of the fleas in a Meriones unguiculatus focus of plague in the Dinbian area of Shanbei. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 14: 31-34.
Farkas, R. The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis Bouché). Review Article. Magyar Állatorvosok Lapja 121: 414-419. (in Hungarian)
Fenner, F. & B. Fantini. Biological control of vetebrate pests: The history of myxomatosis, an experiment in evolution. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, U.K. 339 pp.
Franc, M. & M.C. Cadiergues. Activity of a deltamethrin shampoo against Ctenocephalides felis and Rhipicephalus sanguineus in dogs. Veterinary Parasitology 81: 341-346.
Gómez, M.S., J.C. Beaucournu & A. Arrizabalaga. Présence dans la partie orientale des Pyrénees espagnoles d'Amphipsylla sibirica sepifera Jordan & Rothschild, 1920, (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae: Amphipsyllinae). Parasite 6: 71-72.
Garcia, M.J., L. Lucientes, L.M. Ferrer, L. Gracea, M. Burguete, M.A. Peribanex & J.A. Castillo. Fleas affecting sheep. In: VIII Jornados sobre producción animal, 11-13 May, 1999, Zaragoza, Spain. Tomo I ITEA Producción Animal 20 (Supplement 20, Part 1): 401-403.
Guaguère, E., A. Limet & C. Feve. The effectiveness of imidacloprid in treating flea allergy dermatitis in dogs. Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animale de Compagnie 34: 231-235.
Heeb, P., I. Warner, A.C. Mateman, M. Kölliker, M.W.G. Brinkhof, C.M. Lessells & H. Richner. Ectoparasite infestation and sex-biased recruitment of hosts. Nature 400: 63-65.
Horak, I.G., F. Chaparro, J.C. Beaucournu & J.P. Louw. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XXXVI. Arthropod parasites of yellow mongooses, Cynictis penicillata (G. Cuvier, 1829). Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 66: 33-38.
Jameson, E.W., Jr. Host-ectoparasite relationships among North American chipmunks. Acta Theriologica 44: 225-231
Jarvis, W. The truth about cats and dogs... a flea's perspective. Bulletin of the Amature Entomologist's Society 58: 91-99.
Larsen, K.S., H. Leirs & L. Lodal. Fipronil as a systemic insecticide in a rodenticide bait for flea and rat control. Danish Pest Infestation Laboratory, Annual Report 1998: 70.
Larsen, K.S., H. Leirs & J. Lodal. Palatability and toxicity tests of fipronil as a systemic insecticide in a rodenticide bait for rat and flea control. Danish Pest Infestation Laboratory, Annual Report 1998: 90.
Lemons-Estes, F.M., R.C. Neafie & W.M. Meyers. Unusual cutaneous infections and parasitic diseases. In Advances in military dermatology. (K.J. Smith & M.L. McCollough Eds.) Dermatologic Clinics 17: 151-185.
Lewis, D.C., P.E Ginn & G.A. Kunkle. Clinical and histological evaluation of immediate and delayed flea antigen intradermal skin test and flea bite sites in normal and flea-allergic cats. Veterinary Dermatology 10: 29-37.
LIU Jing-yuan & MA Li-ming. Description of a new subspecies of Macrostylophora hebeiensis (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 42: 103-106. (M. h. shennongjiaensis )
LIU Jing-yuan, HU Cui-hua & MA Li-ming. Discovery of the female of Chaetopsylla wangi and supplementary morphology of the male Neopsylla clavella and Frontopsylla megasinus (Siphonaptera: Ceratophylloidea). Acta Entomologica Sinica 42: 108-110.
LU Liang, WU Hou-yong & Qian Cunning. Establishment and maintenance of a laboratory population of Pulex irritans and monitoring for its genetic variation. Acta Parasitologica et Medica Entomologica Sinica 6: 116-119.
McCrindle, C.M.E., E.D. Green & N. R. Bryson. A primary animal health care approach to treatment and control of flea (Ctenocephalideas felis ) infestation in indigenous goats kept on communal grazing. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 70: 21-24.
Mehlhorn, H., N. Mencke & O. Hansen. Effects of imidacloprid on adult and larval stages of the flea Ctenocephalides felis after in vivo and in vitro application: a light and electron-microscopy study. Parasitology Research 85: 625-637.
Merino, S., E. Mínguez & B. Belliure. Ectoparasite effects on nesting European storm-petrels. Waterbirds 22: 297-301.
Metzger, M.E. & M.K. Rust. Abiotic factors affecting the development of fleas (Siphonaptera) of California ground squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in southern California. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Urban Pests. Czech University of Agriculture, Prague, Czech Republic, 19-22 July 1999. W.H. Robinson, F. Rettich & G.W. Rambo (Eds.)
Miller, R.J., A.B. Broce, M.W. Durden & J.E. Throne. Emergence, survival and fecundity of adult cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) exposed as pupae to juvenile hormone. Journal of Medical Entomology 36: 776-779.
Miller, R.J., A.B. Broce, M.W. Durden & T. Hopkins. Susceptibility to insect growth regulators and cuticle deposition of the cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) as a function of age. Journal of Medical Entomology 36: 780-787.
Nadachowski, A. & J.I. Mead. Alticola argentatus. Mammalian Species 625: 1-4.
Nadachowski, A. & J.I. Mead. Alticola strelzovi. Mammalian Species 6256 1-4.
Navarro, L. & M.T. Verde. A field study of the efficacy of imidacloprid for the treatment of flea allergy dermatitis. Medicina Veterinaria 16: 30... 44.
Pinter, L. Leporacarus gibbus and Spilopsyllus cuniculi infestation in a pet rabbit. Journal of Small Animal Practice 40: 220-221.
Reiter, P., M. Turell, B. Coleman, B. Miller, G. Maupin, J. Liz, A. Kuehne, J. Barth, J. Geisbert, D. Dohm, J. Glick, J. Pecor, R. Robbins, P. Jahrling, C. Peters & T. Ksiazek. Field investigations of an outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1995, arthropod studies. In: Ebola: the virus and the disease. C.J. Peters & J.W. LeDuc (Eds.) Journal of Infectious Diseases (Supplement) 179: 148-154.
SHI Gao, Wang Jian, LI Jian-Hua, WEI Chun-heng & LIU Yan-hua. Study on the relation between the vertical distribution of Citellus dauricus and its parasitic fleas and plague epidemics. Acta Parasitologica et Medica Entomologica Sinica 6: 112-115.
Slobodyanyuk, O.V. Revision of the species Psyllotylenchus pawlowskyi (Kurochkin, 1960) Poinar & Nelson, 1973. II. Description of Kurochkinitylenchus laevicepsi gen. n., sp. n. and Spilotylenchidae fam. n. Russian Journal of Nematology 7: 1-18.
St. John, S., I. Hernandez, J. Lucas & D. Johnson. A ready-to-use delta-methrin formulation for consumer use, with improved residual activity on public health pests. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Urban Pests. Czech University of Agriculture, Prague, Czech Republic. 19-22 July 1999. W.H. Robinson, F. Rettich & G.W. Rambo (Eds.)
Steele, M.A. Tamiasciurus douglasi. Mammalian Species 630: 1-8.
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Wilamowski, A. Fleas (Siphonaptera) harmful to man in Israel. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Urban Pests. Czech University of Agriculture, Prague, Czech Republic. 19-22 July 1999. W.H. Robinson, F. Rettich & G.W. Rambo (Eds.)
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