Flea NewsVolume 52

Produced by R.E. Lewis, Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011
FLEA NEWS is a biannual newsletter devoted to matters involving insects belonging to the order Siphonaptera (fleas) and related subjects. It is compiled and distributed free of charge by Robert E. Lewis (relewis@iastate.edu) with the support of the Department of Entomology at Iowa State University, Ames, IA, and a grant in aid from Sandoz Animal Health, based in Des Plaines, IL. It is mainly bibliographic in nature. Many of the sources are abstracting journals and title pages and not all citations have been checked for completeness or accuracy. Additional information will be provided upon written or e-mail request. Further, recipients are urged to contribute items of interest to the profession for inclusion herein.

This newsletter is now available in electronic format. The preferred method of accessing the electronic version is through the World-Wide Web at the following Universal Resource Locator: https://www.ent.iastate.edu/fleanews/aboutfleanews.html or through either Gopher or anonymous FTP: gopher.ent.iastate.edu in the "Publications" directory. Electronic versions are available for No. 46, July, 1993; No. 47, December, 1993; No. 48, July, 1994; No. 49, December, 1994; No 50, June, 1995; No. 51, December, 1995 and this number.

The opinions and assertions contained herein are the private ones of the author and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the Department of Entomology, Iowa State University or Sandoz Animal Health.



It has now been slightly over 22 years since Flea News was conceived by Mr. F.G.A.M. Smit, then Curator of fleas at the British Museum (Natural History. Prior to 1972 the combined Rothschild and British Museum collection of fleas resided in the small village of Tring, Hartfordshire, ~20 miles NW of London. During collection reorganization in 1972, the fleas were transferred to the main museum building on Cromwell Road, South Kensington, where they are currently housed.

From February of 1973 to June of 1980, Smit produced 20 issues of Flea News totalling 205 pages of text and bibliographic information pertaining to fleas and related matters on a worldwide basis. In addition, in conjunction with his assistant he also sent out A list of code numbers of species and subspecies of Siphonaptera (1978a) and A catalogue of primary type-specimens of Siphonaptera in the British Museum (Natural History) (1978b) which were distributed as appendices to the newsletter. Since Smit's retirement in 1980, Flea News has been continued, in somewhat modified form, from the Entomology Department here at Iowa State University.

In issue number 20 Smit indicated that during the years 1973 to early 1980 he had listed 1605 titles, for an average of 227 per annum. I have kept a tally of the numbers of papers cited in Flea News since its inception and, as of this issue, the number stands at 5939, an average of 258 per annum Granted, this is not an accurate figure since it does not take into consideration works that have been overlooked during this period or the few cases where papers have been cited in more than one issue. However, in this type of endeavour there is no such thing as completeness and the numbers can only sugest a trend. A review of these citations indicates a dimunition in taxonomic studies, with a few notable exceptions, and an increase in experimental and applied works. This is particularly the case with control measures such as insect growth regulators (IGRs) and systemics.

Does this mean that taxonomic and systematic studies of the Siphonaptera are nearing completion? Most assuredly not! Of the landmark series of catalogues published by the British Museum from 1953 to 1987, only the last volume can be considered current and the earliest volumes are badly in need of revision. One of the major families, the Ceratophyllidae, has never been treated on a worldwide basis except by Traub et al. (1983) and Lewis (1990), neither of which went beyond a superficial listing of the extant taxa. Smit's key in Traub et al. laid the basis for a taxonomic revision of the family, but there are still many undescribed genera and species belonging to this family. Until these become a part of the literature a taxonomic revision of this important family will not be possible. Following are a few additional considerations involving the order that require study.

At the end of 1995 there were 3011 named taxa in the literature at the species or subspecies level. Of these, 2565 were considered valid and 798, or 31% of these were treated as subspecies. The remaining 446 names are either junior synonyms or of questionable status I know of no other group of organisms, with the possible exception of pocket gophers, where such a high percentage of subspecies has been erected. A dozen of the worst examples of subspecies inflation are the following genera:

Typhloceras          100%
Pariodontis 80.0%
Thrassis 80.0%
Foxella 78.5%
Mesopsylla 76.4%
Ophthalmopsylla 66.6%
Orchopeas 65.0%
Leptopsylla 63.3%
Frontopsylla 57.5%
Ctenophthalmus 57.5%
Hystrichopsylla 56.2%
Peromyscopsylla 54.8%
There are many additional genera with 40% or higher. At a glance it would appear that our knowledge of the order is so advanced that population analysis is possible in a very detailed manner. This could explain how the Ctenophthalmus agyrtes complex could contain 23 subspecies in what is genarally treated as western Europe, or the Stenoponia tripectinata complex could have 14 subspecies in northern Africa and the eastern Mediterranean, or that Foxella ignota could contain 11 subspecies in roughly the western half of North America. While that is one interpretation, it is really quite misleading. From a technical point of view, a subspecies is a race of a species that is assigned its own Latin name in much the same way that species are assigned names. However, there are no clear rules for identifying subspecies except that they must be geographically distinct populations, not merely morphs, and that they must differ to some extent from other geographic segments of the total population. Since they are all supposed to belong to the same species they should be able to interbreed and produce hybrids where the populations impinge upon each other. There are very few cases where this sort of evidence is available, and most subspecies are named with little regard for comparative data. In other words, recognition and description of subspecies is a rather arbitrary procedure and may be driven by forces other than scientific precision. Until these trinomials can be examined and validated by the scientific community their legitimacy must remain a matter of speculation.

On a more positive note, there are more tools available to taxonomists today to explore the ordinal and infraordinal relationships of organisms than ever before. The ancestors of the order Siphonaptera are difficult to determine beyond speculation due to the high degree of morphological modification imposed by an ectoparasitic life style. Most workers have been relatively comfortable in deriving the order from some mecopteroid stock and associating fleas as close relatives of the Diptera, or two winged flies. This arrangement may be supported by recent studies of 18S and 28S rDNA sequences, but the details are only now in the process of being published. At this point I know of no studies using techniques such as the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), nuclear RNA gene sequencing or mitochondrial DNA sequencing that have been developed relatively recently. Perhaps the time will come in the not-too-distant future when techniques such as these will be applied to the mystery of flea phylogeny both within and beyond the ordinal level

On the fossil front, there are only a few fossils that are unarguably fleas in the modern definition. So far these seem to be restricted to deposits of Baltic and Domincan amber. The two that have been described from Baltic amber belong to a recognizable modern genus, Palaeopsylla, assigned to the hystrichopsylloid family Ctenophthalmidae. Those in Dominican amber, though as yet undescribed, appear to be rhopalopsyllids or pulicids. Though there is much to be learned from these fossils it is unlikely that they will contribute much to phylogenetic theory within the order.

Although the world fauna is better known than might be expected, there are still large areas that should be sampled. This is particularly true of Central and South America, but even parts of western United States are still in need of intensive collecting. In fact, much collecting has been done but the records remain unpublished and are thus inaccessible to the scientific community.

In summary, there are still many opportunities for researches into fleas at many different levels and much alpha taxonomy remains to be done before the world fauna is properly understood and elucidated.



The American Society of Mammalogists have scheduled their annual meeting for 15-19 June 1996 at the University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, SD. The following two titles may be of interest to recipients of this newsletter.

Owen, R.D., M.R. Willig & D. Gettinger. Small mammals and their ectoparasites from Paraguay - Status of a long-term project.

Gompper, M.E. Effects of coati social structure on ectoparasite presence, abundance and costs.

The Society for Vector Ecology have scheduled their annual meeting for 6-9 October 1996 at Berkeley, CA. The European branch of the Society will meet in Strasbourg, France, 2-6 September 1996 and the 2nd International Congress of Vector Ecology is sheduled for 19-24 October 1997 in Orlando, FL

Volume 27(1) of the Vector Ecology Newsletter contains a resumé of worldwide plague surveillance by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), as well as federal, state and local agencies since the last summary was published in April of 1994. Although too extensive to include here copies should be available from the Society at P.O.Box 87, Santa Ana, CA 92702, USA.

The 4th International Symposium on Ectoparasites of Pets, sponsered by the University of California, is scheduled for 6-8 April 1997 at the Mission Inn, Riverside, CA. January 3, 1997 is the deadline for submission of paper titles. February 28th is the cutoff for hotel reservations and preregistration ($100 full, $50 student and $150 on-site). Titles and 250 word abstracts should be submitted to Dr. Nancy Hinkle, Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, or sent by e-mail to . Reservations may be made at the Mission Inn by calling (800) 843 7755 or (909) 784 0300. For further information contact Ms. Hinkle or Terrie Love at (909) 787 3718. See page 611 for additional infromation.

New Products

Following are a few listings of products or servicies that may be of interest to some recipients. Additional information will be provided upon request.

2742 Beacon Hill
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-6502
Phone (313) 971 6033
E-mail entomation@aol.com

This organization specializes in computer software related to the biological sciences, especially entomology. I have used the Entoprint program to generate labels and find it most useful. Other products, such as Insect Clip Art and Bug Art, etc. are listed in a 1 page catalogue, available upon request at the above address.

Specialist Science Books
P.O.Box 1553
Exbury Way
Andover, Hampshire
SP10 3XS United Kingdom
Fax. (44) 1264 334751 (International)
01264334715 (Domestic)

Beginning in mid-May this bookselling service entered the Internet. It is an electronic booksellers catalogue. Under Entomology it lists the following categories: Taxonomic; Insect Catalogues/Identification Guides, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Small Orders, Spiders & Parasitic Insects. Applied: Biological Control/Pest Management, Insect Ecology/Conservation, Insect Biochemistry/Genetics, Food/Crop Preservation & Protection, General Entomology Books. There are also sections labeled Announcements, New Publications, Featured Books & Special Offers. Individual listings include the Title, Author(s), Bibliographic information, Reference Number, Price in £ and Annotations. At present the following general categories are treated: Biotechnology, Botany, Entomology, Food Science, Geology, Natural History, Water & Water Treatment and Zoology and over 2,000 titles are listed.

Entomological Information Services
P.O.Box 4350
Rockville, MD 20849-4350 USA
(800) 879 4214
E.mail eis@ix.netcom.com

A recent mailing advertises Nomina Insecta Nearctica, a checklist of all the species and genus-group names applied to insects of North America (USA, Canada & Greenland). Includes senior and junior synonyms, junior homonyms, emendations, and unavailable names as determined by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. To be issued in four volumes and a CD within the next year. Volume 1 [published in May] deals with the Coleoptera and Strepsiptera and is $79.95. Other volumes are scheduled for summer, fall and winter of this year as is the CD. The WWW site provides additional information, but nothing about the participants, so I have no idea how authoritative the finished product really is.

Personal Comments

Dr Allen H. Benton writes that he wishes to dispose of his extensive collection of books, pamphlets and reprints on Siphonaptera. Anyone interested should write, indicating their areas of interest or special needs. The address is: 292 Water Street, Fredonia, NY 14063.

Following is a communication from Ms. Nancy Adams, Smithsonian Institution, concerning the Siphonaptera collection there.


The United States National Siphonaptera Collection housed at the Smithsonian Institution's, National Museum of Natural History, Museum Support Center in Suitland, MD, is open for business. The collection has been undergoing growth and facility changes to allow for expansion, organization and to enhance its accessibility. In an insect collection as large as the holdings of the NMNH there are never enough hands to keep the collection in good shape and we must rely on our friends and colleagues to help out. For many years Dr. Robert Traub was that friend. He donated duplicates from his personal collection, depositing much of his type material with us and encouraging his colleagues to do the same. As well, he was the watchdog of Government Siphonaptera collections, noting when it looked like material was going to be abandoned and seeing to it that it got a safe home in the National Collections. I dare say the NMNH would probably have fewer than 100 slide boxes of material had it not been for the tireless efforts of Bob Traub. Because of his love for these wee beasties and his tireless efforts in the clearing and mounting of fleas, the collection now holds about 1,400 slide boxes of fleas from around the world, including over 400 primary types. The collection contains the non-USA material from Brigham Young University through Vernon Tipton, the material that the late Allen Barnes and others worked on from the Centers for Disease Control, Ft. Collins, Colorado, most of the W. L. Jellison and Phyllis T. Johnson material, also significant gifts from C. A. Hubbard, R. E. Lewis and many others. I admit, you may be more familiar with the collection than I am, because I have only recently taken over the collection manager position for the Siphonaptera collection. I am not a flea taxonomist but am the collection manager for the neuropteroid orders and the lice and flea collections and thus the contact person for any information, loans or gifts for those portions of the NMNH collections. I am sorry to say that I have not had the chance to inventory the holdings, but that is in the plans for the future and when it is prepared I will put an announcement in Flea News. One of the slowdowns in organizing the collection was the necessity of labeling about 40,000 slides from the SI/US Army Survey of African Mammals. They were beautifully mounted and most identified to genus or species but had no locality or host labels and sometimes no appropriate determination labels. With help from a few volunteers and a short-term contract worker, that chore has been completed. Surprisingly, while working on the labelling, one of the original workers on the Africa flea project, Michael Hastriter, contacted me to let me know he was ready to work on some of the material again. What a thrill! There are still about 10,000 specimens that are unidentified from that project so I can really use the help.

The collection is now arranged in alphabetical order by family, genus and species so even though the inventory has yet to be made I can still look for specimens that you may want to borrow for study or identification. The NMNH Department of Entomology loan policy is as follows: 3 years for non-type material with extensions possible and 6 months for primary types. This can be negotiated depending on your project. The Department also has a policy for material retention for identification services, a "kept for names" system that we can discuss if you are interested in helping with this task.

I still have a large supply of excess reprints which I advertised in an earlier Flea News. Some from that listing may no longer be available because I did have about 30 requests. But if you look back on that list and see something that you or a student/colleague might need, please let me know.

Thank you all for keeping the NMNH, through me, on your reprint mailing list. Having as complete a literature base as possible for current and future workers is exceedingly important.

I would also like to extend an invitation to any of you who would like to visit the collection; you are more than welcome. Often the Washington, DC area is a springboard to other world destinations. So, if coming to this area is in your travel plans and you would like to spend some time in the collection or retrieving material for a loan, please let me know. The research facilities at the Museum Support Center are fairly new and quite good. It will be easy to get you set up near the specimen and reprint collection.

I have probably not answered all your questions concerning the collection, so if you have other questions you can reach me by phone: (202) 357 1897, Fax: (202) 786 2894, E-mail: MNHEN049@SIVM.SI.EDU, or snail mail: Nancy Adams, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, MCR-105, Washington, DC 20560.

Please let me know how I can facilitate your research. N.E.A.

New Species


australiaca Beaucournu & Kock Lagaropsylla mera

bursiforma Wu, Cai & Li Callopsylla (Geminopsylla)

changi Wu, Zhao & Li Wagnerina

heishuiensis Li & Liu Hystrichopsylla

hubeiensis Liu, Wang & Yang Doratopsylla coreana

iberica Ribeiro, Lucientes, Osacar & Calvete Echidnophaga

intermedium Guo, Liu & Wu Paradoxopsyllus

liae Guo, Liu & Hu Paradoxopsyllus

liui Guo Liu & Wu Frontopsylla

malayana Beaucournu & Kock Lagaropsylla

mengdaensis Cai & Wu Hystrichopsylla

muyuensis Liu & Wang Macrostylophora

peninsularis Lewis Thrassis

polyspina Liu Wu & Li Amphipsylla

wushanensis Liu & Wang Palaeopsylla


andersoni George & Beaucournu Orthopsylloides

baiyerensis George & Beaucournu Orthopsylloides abacetus

grenieri Beaucournu & Rodhain Ctenocephalides

lui Li Syngenopsyllus

liae Zhang, Wu & Li Monopsyllus

subulispina Cai, Wu & Li Wagnerina


It is my intention to retire from Iowa State University effective 31-December-1996. However, I intend to continue my work with the Siphonaptera and will continue to produce Flea News as long as there is financial support for it. As of 1 January 1997 my mailing address will be: 3906 Stone Brooke Circle, Ames, IA 50010-4174 USA. Phone (515) 232 7714 A new e-mail address will be provided later, probably in the December issue.


Although it may not be obvious from the titles, citations included here pertain to fleas and the zoonoses associated with them. No particular effort has been made to search the medical and veterinary literature and the emphasis here is on the taxonomy, systematics and general biology of members of the order.

1991 List (11)

Easton, E.R. Annotated list of insects of Macau observed during 1989. Entomological News 102(2): 105-111.

GAO, Z.-l. & MA L.-m. A new species of the genus Brevictenidia from Xizang, China (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 16(4): 487-489.

GE L. & MA L.-m. Description of female of the flea Paradoxopsyllus aculeolatus (Siphonaptera: Leptopsyllidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 16(4): 500-502.

LI S.-j. et al. The bloodsucking ability of Nosopsyllus laeviceps kuzenkovi and the experiment of biting humans. Chinese Journal of Vector Biology and Control 2(2): 95-99.

Nayak, M.K., S.S. Sehgal & V. Baweja. Flea-host relationships of associated Rattus and native wild rodents in selected biotopes of two erstwhile plague endemic areas in India. Indian Journal of Entomology 53(4): 564-573.

1992 (List 9)

Flowerdew, J.R., R.C. Trout & J. Ross. Myxomatosis: population dynamics of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758) and ecological effects in the United Kingdom. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties 11(4): 1109-1113.

LIU J.-y. & LI X.-m. The vectorial position and effect of Nosopsyllus laeviceps kuzenkovi in the natural plague foci of gerbils. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 7(4): 40-44.

MA L.-m. Life duration of adult Neopsylla bidentatiformis and Citellophilus tesquorum sungaris in relation to temperature and humidity. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 7(4): 89-91.

QIAN C.-n. et al. A device for feeding the flea and observing infection of Pulex irritans with Yersinia pestis. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 7(3): 43-45.

WANG Z.-j. Ecological observation of Marmota himalayana during hibernation. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 7(4): 51-55.

ZHANG X.-x. et al. A study on the plague mass formation of the flea Pulex irritans canine strain from Yunnan and Jilin. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 7(4): 92-93.

1993 (List 7)

Capel, R.A. & J. Calvet . Contribution to the knowledge of fleas (Insecta, Siphonaptera) of Madeira and the Selvagens. Boletim da Socidade Portuguesa de Entomologia (1992) Supplemento No. 3, 2, 197-201.

CHEN J.-l. & WANG D.-q. An approach to the extraction of flea genomic DNA. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 8(1): 56-60.

CHEN J.-l & WANG D.-q. Scanning electron miscroscopy of the chorion surface of three species of domestic rat fleas in south China (Siphonaptera). Endemic Diseases Bulletin 8(2): 17-19.

CHEN J.-l. & WANG D.-q. Preliminary studies on restriction enzymatic analysis of genomic DNA in Leptopsylla segnis and Monopsyllus anisus. Acta Parasitologica et Medica Entomologica Sinica 1: 66-68.

CHI Y.-l. et al. Labelling Citellophilus tesquorum sungaris with 125I and observations on the physiological effects. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 8(1): 68-70.

DONG X.-q. et al. Diagnosis, treatment and analysis of 8 cases of bubonic plague in Yunjian County. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 8(1): 87-89.

FEI R.-z et al. A study of the extent of dispersal of Citellophilus tesquorum sungaris on Citellus using the 125I labelling method. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 8(1): 65-67.

Fox, M.T. Ectoparasites and vectors of veterinary importance. Parasitology Today 9(12): 437-438.

Gállego, M., M.S. Gómez, M. Portús & J. Gállego. Ectoparasitological study (Acarina, Insecta) of insectivores in Catalonia. Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Entomologia (1992) Supplemento No. 3, 1, 385-394.

Ivanov, V.P. Electron microscope study of the pygidial receptor organ in the flea Xenopsylla cheopis Roths., 1903 (Siphonaptera). Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 72(3): 507-518.

Kutzscher, C. Ein interessanter Flohfund am Haussperling (Passer domesticus L.) Entomologische Nachrichten und Berichte 37(2): 138-139.

LI C.-s. et al. A surveillance report of plague epizootic in Ulan County. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 8(1): 94-98.

LI Z.-l. & XIO B.-l. Observations on the breeding and biological characteristics of Leptopsylla segnis. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 8(2): 26-28.

LIAO H.-r. & LIN D.-h. Laboratory observations on some biological characters of two rat fleas in south China. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 8(1): 61-64.

LIU J.-y & LIU J. The distribution and epidemiological significance of main species of flea in various types of plague foci in Inner Mongolia. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 8(1): 26-29.

MA L.-m. Resistance of the fleas Neopsylla bidentatiformis and Citellophilus tesquorum sungaris to low temperature. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 8(1): 71-73.

MacKichen, J.J. & W.F. Hink. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of CGA-184699 (Lufenuron) in dog and cat blood. Journal of Liquid Chromatography 16(12): 2595-2604.

Meola, R.W., S. Ready & S. Meola. Physiological effects of the juvenoid pyriproxyfen on adults, eggs and larvae of the cat flea. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Insect Pests in the Urban Environment. pp. 221-228.

Meola, S., K. Palma & R.W. Meola. Flea eggs: target of the new IGR on-animal treatments. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Insect Pests in the Urban Environment . pp. 207-213

Osacar-Jimenez, J.J., J. Lucientes-Curdi, C. Calvete-Margolles & R. Villafuerte-Fernandez. Notes on the ecology of rabbit fleas (Siphonaptera) parasitizing wild rabits (Oryctolagus cuniculus ) in Ebro's middle valley. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Insect Pests in the Urban Environment. 481 (abstract)

PENG H.-b. et al. Confirmation and analysis of human plague in Menghai County, Yunnan. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 8(4): 42-44.

Pototski, A., O Schwan, P. Tüll & V. Vasil-enko. The fauna of small mammals, fleas and Ixodes ticks of Saaremaa (Estonia) and Gotland (Sweden) islands. Biologija (1993) No. 1. pp. ?

Rodríguez-Rodríguez, J.A., R. Martín-Hernández, F. Valcárcel-Sancho & A.S. Ilmeda-García. Intraspecific variation in the genal and pronotal chaetotaxy of Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale, 1878) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Entomologia (1992) Supplemento No. 3, 2, 137-146.

Sangvaranond, A. Studies on prevalence and outbreak of ectoparasites in native chickens in the central part of Thailand. Kasetsart Journal, Natural Sciences 27(2): 194-202.

Saxena, V.K. & A. Miyata. An unusual morphological type of Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma ) lewisi Kent, 1880) detected in the blood of Rattus norvegicus in India. Journal of Communicable Diseases 25(1): 15-17.

SHI G. et al. A mathematical model for forecasting the nest flea index of Citellus dauricus. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 8(2): 73.

SHYU M.-h., HSU T.-c. & WU W.-j. Seasonal abundance of the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Chinese Journal of Entomology 13(1): 59-67.

Skidmore, R.E. A catalogue of types of miscellaneous terrestrial orders in the Canadian National Collection of Insects (Arthropoda: Insecta), including amber fossils. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario 124: 197-207.

Sreevatsa, ?. Leprosy and arthropods. Indian Journal of Leprosy 65(2): 189-200.

Vashchonok, V.S. Factors regulating oviposition in the flea Leptopsylla segnis (Leptopsyllidae: Siphonaptera). Parazitologia 27(6): 383-388.

WANG D.-q & LIAO H.-r. Monstrosities appearing in a colony of Leptopsylla segnis reared in the laboratory over a long period of time. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 8(2): 20-22.

WANG S.-q, LIAO J. & WU H.-y. Comparative studies of composition and content of amino acids in subspecies of Citellophilus tesquorum. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 8(4): 18-22.

WANG S.-r & LIU X.-q. Castrated males in the genus Neopsylla from China and a discussion of Neopsylla monodentatiformis. Acta Entomologica Sinica 36(2) 225-230.

Wildey, K.B. & W.H. Robinson. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Insect Pests in the Urban Environment. Cambridge, UK xii-498 pp. ISBN 0-9521824-0-8. Central Science Laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. London Road, Slough SL3 7HJ, UK.

XIAO B.-l. & LI Z.-l. Morphological observations on the larvae of Frontopsylla frontalis baibacina. Acta Entomologica Sinica 36(3): 375-378.

XIRAU R.-d et al. An investigation of the natural foci of plague in Gyaca and Nangxian counties, Tibet. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 8(4): 45-48.

YE R.-y, ZHANG J.-t, CAO H.l & YU X. Damage cause by phoresy of acariid hypopi to fleas. Acta Parasitology and Medical Entomology Sinica 1: 46-48.

YU X. On the distribution of the six subspeies of Ophthalmopsylla volgensis including a new record from China. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 8(1): 21-25.

YU X. et al. New records of fleas from China (including Xinjiang). Endemic Diseases Bulletin 8(3): 90-91.

ZHU J.-q, WU W.-l, LI Y.-z., LIU G. & WANG C.-m. A study on the epidemic patterns and control measures of human plague in Qinghai Province. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 8(1): 1-8.

1994 (List 5)

Allen, J.R. Host resistance to ectoparasites. In: Ectoparasites of animals and control methods. G. Uilenberg (Ed.). Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office Internacional des Épizooties 13(4): 1287-1303.

CAI L.-y, WU W.-z & LI Z.-l. Two new species and a new subgenus of the family Hystrichopsyllidae Tiraboschi, 1904 from Qinghai Province, China. Acta Entomologica Sinica 37(2): 225-228.

Cuisance D., N. Barré & R. de Deken. Ectoparasites des animaux: méthodes de lutte écologique, biologique, génétique et méchanique. In: Ectoparasites of animals and control methods. G. Uilenberg (Ed.). Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office Internacional des Épizooties 13(4): 1305-1356.

Fenner, F. & J. Ross. Myxomatisis. pp. 205-239. In: The European rabbit: the history and biology of a successful colonizer. H.V. Thompson & C.M. King (Eds.) Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK ISBN 0-19-857611-0.

Hunter, J.E., R.J. Gutierrez, A.B. Franklin & D. Olson. Ectoparasites of the spotted owl. Journal of Raptor Research 28(4): 232-235.

JIN P. Studies on the digestive system of fleas: structures of the proventriculus of fourteen flea species. Acta Entomologica Sinica 37(1): 51-58.

Kristofík, J., Z. Sustek & P. Gajdos. Arthropods in nests of the sand martin (Riparia riparia Linnaeus, 1758) in south Slovakia. Biológia (Bratislava) 49(5): 683-690.

Lane, R.S., D.M. Berger, L.E. Casher & W. Burgdorfer. Experimental infection of Columbian black-tailed deer with the Lyme disease spirochaete. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 30(1): 20-28.

LIAO H.-r. A summary of the investigation on Rattus rattoides exiguus and its ectoparasites in Fujian. Wuyi Science Journal 11: 158-161.

LIU J.-y & Wang D.-q. Description of a new species of Macrostylophora (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 19(2): 238-242.

LIU J.-y, WANG D.-q & YANG Q.-r. Description of a new subspecies of Doratopsylla coreana (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 19(2): 243-245.

LIU J.-y & WANG D.-q. A new species of Palaeopsylla Wagner, from Hubei Province, China (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 19(3): 367-369.

LIU J.-y., WANG D.-q. & PI J.-j. A description of the female of Liuopsylla conica Zhang, Wu & Li, 1985, and supplementary morphological characters of the genus (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 19(3): 383-384.

LIU J.-y & WANG D.-q. Description of the female of Hystrichopsylla (Hystroceros ) shaanxiensis Zhang et Yu, 1990. Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 19(4): 500-501.

MA L.-m. Laboratory studies on fleas: Neopsylla bidentatiformis and Citellophilus tesquorum sungaris attacking and leaving the host. Acta Entomologica Sinica 37(1): 44-50.

Mackey, S.L. & K.F. Wagner. Dermatologic manifestations of parasitic diseases. Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America 8(3): 713-743.

Morse, S.S. (Ed.) The evolutionary biology of viruses. Raven Press, New York. xi+353 pp. ISBN 0-7817-0119-8.

Parre, J. Fleas of domestic animals. Eesti Loomaarstlik Ringvaade 20(2): 30-36 (in Estonian).

Parre, J. Control of flea infestation. Eesti Loomaarstlik Ringvaade 20(5/6): 32-39. (in Estonian).

Putintseva, L.S., M.M. Mal'tseva & V.P. Dremova. Evaluation of the efficacy of insecticidal pencils containing cypermethrin. Meditsinskaya Parazitologia i Parazitarnye Bolezni (1994) (2): 34-37.

SHAO G.-n. A new record of Rhadinopsylla from China. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 9(3): 64-69.

TEN Y.-f., ZHANG H.-y. & XIE X.-c. The natural foci of plague in Xinjiang, China. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 9(3): 35-41.

Vargehese, M.A., S. Jagadish & D.P. Bhalerao. Studies on the hospital incidence of dermatitis in dogs in Bombay. Indian Veterinary Journal 71(9): 948-949.

Walter, G. & D. Kock. Distribution and host species of German bat fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 74(1/2): 103-125.

WANG Z.-y et al. General features of Marmota himalayana plague natural foci in the Guoluo area in Qinghai. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 9(2): 41-42.

WANG D.-q. & LIU J.-y. A new family of fleas, Liuopsyllidae Fam. Nov. (Insecta: Siphonaptera). Acta Entomologica Sinica 37(3): 364-369.

Whitaker, J.O., Jr., G.D. Hartman & R. Hein. Food and ectoparasites of the southern short-tailed shrew, Blarina carolinensis (Mammalia: Soricidae) from South Carolina. Brimleyana 21: 97-105.

WU W.-z., CAI L.-y. & LI C. Description of a new species of the genus Callopsylla from south Qinghai, China (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 19(2): 235-237.

XI J.-x. et al. An investigation of the fauna and ecology of fleas in the Lanzhou District [China] Endemic Diseases Bulletin 9(1): 79-80.

YE R.-y., ZHANG J.-t. & CHEN X.-r. Helminths parasitizing fleas in Xinjiang, China. Acta Parasitologica and Medical Entomology Sinica 1(1): 57-60.

ZHANG R.-g. et al. Original areas and distribution range of type specimens of the new species and subspecies of fleas in Gansu Province. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 9(3): 58-59.

1995 (List 3)

Boyd, H.P. Arthropods taken in pitfall traps in the pine barrens of New Jersey. Entomological News 106(1): 45-56.

Beaucournu, J.C. A propos du vecteur de la peste en Europe occidentale au cours de la Dauxieme pandemie. Bulletin de la Société Français de Parasitologie 13(2): 233-252.

Beaucournu, J.C. & J.F. Noblet. Confirmation de la présence en France de la puce Ischnopsyllus (I.) elongatus (Curtis, 1932) (Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae) Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 100(4): 413-414.

Beaucournu, J.C. & F. Rodhain. Ctenocephalides grenieri n. sp., puce nouvelle du Cameroun (Insecta-Siphonaptera-Pulicidae). Parasite 2: 297-300.

CHEN J.-l. & WANG D.-q. Preliminary analysis in restriction enzymatic analysis of genomic DNA in three species of domestic rat flea in Fujian. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 10(3): 8-11

Chesney, C.J. Species of flea found on cats and dogs in south west England: further evience of their polyxenous state and implications for flea control. Veterinary Record 135(14): 356-358.

Cote, I.M. & R. Poulin. Parasitism and group size in social animals: a metaanalysis. Behavioral Ecology 6: 159-165.

Doby, J.M. Arthropods parasitizing the human skin in language. I. Fleas, lice and crab lice. Bulletin de la Société Français de Parasitologie 13(1): 91-136.

Douglas-Jones, A.G., M. Llewwlyn & C.M. Mills. Cutaneous infection with Tunga penetrans. British Journal of Dermatology 133(1): 125-127.

Dryden, M.W. & R. Gillard. Biology of the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis felis and flea control. Pratique Médicale & Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie 30(2, Supplement): 207-217.

Eckerlin, R.P. & H.F. Painter. First record of Tamiophila grandis (Insecta: Siphonaptera) from Virginia. Banisteria 6: 24-25.

Fourie, L.J., J.S. du Toit, D.J. Kok & I.G. Horak. Arthropod parasites of elephant-shrews, with particular reference to ticks. Mammal Review 25(1/2): 31-37.

Franc, M. & M.C. Cadiergues. Efficacy of a dichlorvosfenitrothion combination against cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis ). Revue de Médécine Vétérinaire 146(5): 341-344.

George, R.S. & J.C. Beaucournu. Deux Orthopsylloides nouveaux de Nouvelle-Guinée (Siphonaptera: Pygiopsyllidae). Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France 100(2): 169-172

Guaguère, E. (Ed.) Special issue on dermatology. Clinical and therapeutic aspectes. Pratique Médicale & Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie 30(2, Supplement): 207-354.

Henderson, G., S.A. Manweiler, W.J. Lawrence, R.J. Tempelman & L.D. Foil. The effects of Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) application to the different life stages on adult emergence of the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché). Veterinary Dermatology 6(3): 159-163.

Hill, P.B., K.A. Moriello & D.J. DeBoer. Concentrations of total serum IgE, IgA and IgG in atopic and parasitized dogs. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 44(2): 105-113.

Hoc, T.Q. Morpho-histological changes in the ovarioles and determination of physiological age in haematophagous insects of medical importance. Zoologicae Poloniae 40(1-4): 5-65.

Inder Singh, K., S. Ambu, M. Krishnasamy, R. Rosli & J. Jeffery. Surveillance of fleas from small mammals from Kuala Lumpur. Tropical Biomedicine 12(1): 17-21.

Jensen, I.H., N. Bille & L.H. Hansen. (Eds.). Annual Report. Danish Pest Infestation Laboratory Annual Report 1994: 1-80.

Kambhampati S. & P.T. Smith. PCR primers for the amplification of four insect mitochondrial gene fragments. Insect Molecular Biology 4(4): 233-236.

Koehler, P.G. & H.A. Moye. Airborne insecticide residues after broadcast application for cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) control. Journal of Economic Entomology 88(6): 1684-1689.

Kotti, B.K. & Y.V. Kovalevsky. Fleas of small mammals on the area between Amur and Bureya. Zoologichesky Zhurnal 74(10): 70-76.

Larsen, K.S. Lopper pa minkfarme. Dansk Pelsdyravl 3: 128.

Levot, G.W. Resistance and the control of sheep ectoparasites. International Journal for Parasitology 25(11): 1355-1362.

Li G.-z., WU W.-z. & ZHANG R.-q. On the geographical distribution, host preferences and diagnostic characters of Neopsylla hongyangensis Li, Bai & Chen (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae). Acta Entomologica Sinica 38(2): 161-165.

LI Z.-l, ZHANG W.-r & MA L.-m. Analysis of the relationships between the flea index, Meriones ungiculatus populations and meteorological factors. Acta Entomologica Sinica 38(4): 442-447.

Louw, J.P., I.G. Horak, M.L. Horak & L.O. Braack. Fleas, lice and mites on scrub hares (Lepus saxatilis ) in northern and eastern Transvaal in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 62(2): 133-138.

MacDonald, J.M. Flea control: An overview of treatment concepts for North America. Veterinary Dermatology 6(3): 121-130.

Malher, X. & F. Boerlen. Goat mortality in Poitou-Charentes: Epidemiology and associated health disorders. Revue de Médécine Vétérinaire 146(10): 647-654.

Maskiell, G. Clinical impressions of S-methoprene-impregnated collars and lufenuron for flea control in dogs and cats. Australian Veterinary Journal 25(3): 142-156.

Mason, I.S. The flea: friend or foe? Veterinary Dermatology 6(3): 43.

McLoed, R.S. Costs of major parasites to the Australian livestock industries. International Journal of Parasitology 25(11): 1363.

Nicholson, S.S. Toxicity of insecticides and skin care products of botanical origin. Veterinary Dermatology 6(3): 139-144.

Olsson, K. & K. Allander. Do fleas and/or old nest material influence nest-site preferences in hole-nesting passerines? Ethology 101: 160-170.

Pomorski, Z., W. Sitkowski, I. Taszkun, M. Wozniak & A. Milczak. Efficacy of Program’ [lufenuron] (Ciba) as a new innovative way of flea eradication. Magazyn Weterynaryjny 4(2): 103-104.

Postal, J.M.R., R.J. Tempelman & P.J. Consalvi. Field efficacy of a mechanical pump spray formulation containing 0.25% fipronil in the treatment and control of flea infestation and associated dermatological signs in dogs and cats. Veterinary Dermatology 6(3): 153-158.

Ribeiro, H. Sifonápteros de Portugal (Insecta: Siphonaptera). VI. Lista anotada das pulgas dos Açores. Acta Parasitológica Portuguesa 2(1): 13-17 (1994/95).

Robinson, W.H. Distribution of cat flea larvae in the carpeted household environment. Veterinary Dermatology 6(3): 145-152.

Schein, E. & S. Hauschild. Flea control on dogs and cats with the insect-growth-regulator Lufenuron (PROGRAM). Results from a field study. Kleintierpraxis 40(4): 277-278, 283-284.

Schmutterer, H. Siphonaptera (Aphaniptera): Fleas. pp. 296-297. In: H. Schmutterer (Ed.). Neem tree. Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and other meliaceous plants, sources of unique natural products for integrated pest management, medicine, industry and other purposes. VCH Verlagesgesellschapf (Weinham) . 696 pp. ISBN 3-527-30054-6. Hardbound. $125.00

Shipstone, M.A. & K.V. Mason. The use of insect development inhibitors as an oral medication for the control of the fleas Ctenocephalides felis, Ct. canis in the dog and cat. Veterinary Dermatology 6(3): 131-137.

Stanko, M., & D. Miklisov. Interactions of small mammal communities in windbreaks and adjacent fields with respect to epidemiological aspects. Ecologia (Bratislava) 14(1): 3-16.

Viggers, K.L. & D.M. Spratt. The parasites recorded from Trichosurus species (Marsupialia: Phalageridae). Wildlife Research 22(3): 311-332.

Zakson, M., L.M. Gregory, R.G. Endris & W.L. Shoop. Effect of combing time on cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis ) recovery from dogs. Veterinary Parasitology 60: 149-153.

ZHANG R,-g., WU D.-q & LI B.-s. A new species of Monopsyllus from Gansu Province, China (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae). Acta Entomologica Sinica 38(2): 234-236.

1996 (List 1)

Anonymous. Humid homes are fit for fleas. New Scientist 149(23 March): 13.

Anonymous. Flea survey. Journal of Small Animal Practice 37(1): 51.

Dryden, M.W. & B.L. Reid. Insecticide susceptibility of cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) pupae. Journal of Economic Entomology 89(2): 421-427.

Beaucournu, J.C., T.T. Mahamat, F. Branquet & I. Horak. Additional data on the morphology, anatomy and possible host-parasite interactions of Phacopsylla inexpectata (Smit, 1950) (Insecta: Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) Parasite 3(1): 69-76.

Best, T.L. Lepus californicus. Mammalian Species 530: 1-10.

Christe, P., H. Richner & A Oppliger. Begging, food provisioning, and nesting competition in great tit broods infested with ectoparasites. Behavioral Ecology 7(2): 127-131.

Cyprich, D. & M. Krumpál. Fleas (Siphonaptera) in nests of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus ) and the tree sparrow (P. montanus ). Biologia 51(2): 153-162.

Fisher, M.A., D.E. Jacobs, M.J. Hutchinson & I.G.C. Dick. Evaluation of flea control programmes for cats using fenthion and lufenuron. Veterinary Record 138(4): 79-82.

Gomez, M.S., J. Blasco & J.C. Beaucournu. Occurrence of intergrades between Odontopsyllus quirosi quirosi and Odontopsyllus quirosi episcopalis (Insecta: Siphonaptera) in the northeast of Spain. Parasite 3(1): 81-84.

GONG Z.-d., XIE B.-q & LIN J.-b. Ecology and flea fauna on Mt. Gaoligong, Yunnan. Zoological Research 17(1): 59-67.

Higgins, J.A., S. Radulovic, D.C. Jaworski & A.F. Azad. Acquisition of the cat scratch disease organism, Bartonella henselae , by cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 33(3): 490-495.

Jaworski, D.C., J.A. Higgins, S. Radulovc, J.A. Vaughan & A.F. Azad. Presence of Calreticulin in vector fleas (Siphonaptera). Journal of Medical Entomology 33(3): 482-489.

Johnson, L.S. Removal of old nest material from the nesting sites of house wrens: effects on nest site attractiveness and ectoparasite loads. Journal of Field Ornithology 67(2): 212-221.

Kirkland, G.L., Jr. & D.E. Schmidt. Sorex arcticus. Mammalian Species 524: 1-5.

Lackery, J.A. Chaetodipus fallax. Mammalian Species 517: 1-6.

Leprince, D.J. & R.S. Lane. Evaluation of Permethrin-impregnated cotton balls as potential nesting material to control ectoparasites of woodrats in California. Journal of Medical Entomology 33(3): 355-360.

Oxenham, M. Flea control on ferrets. Veterinary Record 138(15): 372.

Rendell, W.B. & N.A.M. Verbeek. Old nest material in nest boxes of tree swallows: Effects on nest-site choice and nest building. Auk 113: 319-328.

Smit, F.G.A.M. Flea-Bits - A selection of flea drawings by F.G.A.M. Smit. Published privately. Fisherprint, Peterborough, England. 44 pp.

Smith, R.D., A.J. Paul, U.D. Kitron, J.R. Philip, S. Barnett, M.J. Piel, R.W. Ness & M. Evilsizer. Impact of an orally administered growth regulator (lufenuron) on flea infestations of dogs in a controlled simulated home environment. American Journal of Veterinary Research 57(4): 502-505.

Thomas, R.E., L. Wallenfels & I. Popiel. On-host viability and fecundity of Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), using a novel chambered flea technique. Journal of Medical Entomology. 33(2): 250-256.

Yeruham, I., S. Rosen & Y. Braverman. Ctenocephalides felis felis infestation in horses. Veterinary Parasitology 62(3-4): 341-344.

Zakson-Aiken, M., L.M. Gregory & W.L. Shoop. Reproductive strategies of the cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae): parthenogenesis and autogeny. Journal of Medical Entomology 33(3): 395-397.


The following colleagues have sent reprints and other literature sources since Flea News 50. Their cooperation is most appreciated.

J.C. Beaucournu, M. Blaski, CHEN J.-l., G. Chilton, L. Durden, R. Ecker-lin, L. Fisk, T. Galloway, GONG Z.-d., J. Greve, R. Haitlinger, N. Hinkle, H. Painter & H. Ribeiro.

It should be understood that all Russian and Chinese citations listed in this newsletter are in Russian or Chinese, although they may have summaries or abstracts in English, French, German or some other language. Additional information is available upon written request and recipients are urged to report citations of articles dealing with the Siphonaptera, particularly those published in rare sources or those in journals peripheral to the field of Entomology.

Wishing you all a happy and prosperous summer!

R. E. Lewis