Trichoneura (Xipholimnobia)


Alexander, C.P. 1921f. New or little-known Tipulidae (Diptera). IV. Ethiopian species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (9) 7: 318.


The 8 species of this subgenus are grouped based primarily on the peculiar elongate cerci and hypovalve of the female ovipositer. The hypopygium of the males are generally similar among all species, the dorsal style is slender and simple while the ventral style is deeply bifid. These flies are generally small in size in comparison with other Limonids, with most species showing a dark coloration and a characteristic white strip across the lateral sclerites of the abdomen.


Head: Anterior vertex not produced; length of rostrum subequal to the remaining head; length of maxillary palpus subequal to head, palpomeres subequal. Antennae: 16 articles; antenomeres elongate oval.

Trichoneura (Xipholimnobia) wing
Figure 1. Wing of Trichoneura (Xipholimnobia) bontocensis Alexander (re-drawn from Alexander 1934).

Wing: Subhyline to suffused with darker, additional patterning uncommon; stigma typically absent; anal lobe present. Wing venation: Sc1 short, only slightly removed from Sc2; both elements ending between origin and split of Rs; R1+2 greater than 2 times the length of R2; two branches of Rs (R4, R5) attaining wing margin; two Medial veins (M1+3, M3) attaining wing margin; cell dm present; intersection of CuA1 crossvein with M ocuring at about 3/4 length of cell dm; anterior wing chord in weak alignment in distal 1/2 of wing; two Cubital veins (CuA1, CuA2) attaining wing margin; two Anal veins (A1, A2) attaining wing margin.

Trichoneura (Xipholimnobia) hypopygium
Figure 2. Male hypopygium of Trichoneura (Xipholimnobia) sp. (scale bar = 0.5 mm).

Male hypopygium: 9th tergite (9t) and sternite (9s) joined into a single segment. Mesoventral lobe of gonocoxite absent. Gonostylus bifid; doral gonostyle a slender sclerotized rod, normall bifid at tip and variously produced; ventral gonostyle stouter than ventral style, may be bifid or simple. Aedeagus simple with one or two terminal openings. Proctriger simple, without modification.

Female ovipositer: Hypovalves and cerci slender and elongate, their length about equal to abdomen.


This is strongly an Oriental group with 6 of the 8 known species found distributed throughout the region. The species show a wide distribution throughout the region, however the collection records for all species of this subgenus are sparse and their true distribution is largely unknown. The two non-Oriental species are both known from the Afrotropical region, one from continental Africa and the other from Madagascar.

Larval Habitat: 

The larval habitat of this subgenus is unknown.