Loew, H. 1873. Beschreibungen europaischer Dipteren, 3. Halle: i-viii, pp. 67.


Lipsothrix was originally classified as part of Limnophilinae (Hexatominae) based both on the three branches of Rs that attain the wing margin and primitive appearance of the male genetalia. It is included within the Limoniinae here based on the classification of Stary (1991); a three-branched Rs is also seen in Protohelius. The genus is additionally recognized by the characteristic elongate interbase at the base of the gonocoxite. A similarly shaped interbase is additionally seen in Elephantomyia, Helius, Toxorhina, and Dicranoptycha


Head: Anterior vertex suppressed. Rostrum length less than that of the remaining head. Maxillary palpus length less than or subequal to that of remaining head; palpomeres subequal. Antennae: 16 articles; antennomeres suboval to cylindrical.

Lipsothrix sylvia wing
Figure 1. Wing of Lipsothrix sylvia (Alexander)(scale bar = 1.0 mm) 

Wing: Subhyline, typically without additional patterning; stigma present or absent; anal angle of wing present. Wing venation: Sc1 short, only slightly removed from Sc2; both elements ending between origin and split of Rs; R1+2 in near alignment with R2; three branches of Rs (R3, R4, R5) attaining wing margin; two Medial veins (M1+2, M3) attaining wing margin; cell dm present or absent; distal wing chord in general alignment in distal 1/3 of wing; two Cubital veins (CuA1, CuA2) attaining wing margin; two Anal veins (A1, A2) attaining wing margin.

Lipsothrix sylvia hypopygium
Figure 2. Male hypopygium of Lipsothirx sylvia (Alexander)(scale bar = 0.5 mm)

Male hypopygium: 9th tergite (9t) and sternite (9s) separated by lateral division. Mesoventral lobe of gonocoxite absent; basal margin of gonocoxite equipted with strong interbase. Gonostylus bifid; dorsal style a stout sclerotized rod narrowed to an acute tip, a small tooth at about 3/4 the length of the style; ventral style a fleshy lobe, more narrowed at midlength to tip. Aedeagus single or bifid, at times greatly elongate. Proctriger simple, without modification.


Lipsothrix is represented by 34 species that are found in all biogeographic regions except the Afrotropical and Australial/Oceanic Regions. The genus finds its greatest richness in the Oriental (14 species) and Eastern Palearctic (7 species) Regions and is less represented in the Nearctic (6 specis), Neotropical (1 species), and Western Palearctic (5 species) Regions.

Larval Habitat: 

The larvae of Lipsothrix are classified as semi-aquatic and are known to inhabit wood of various species that is wet or saturated with water and in various states of decay.