Limonia (sensu stricto)


Meigen, J.W. 1803. Versuch einer neuen GattungsEintheilung der europaischen zweiflugeligen Insecten. Magazin fur Insektenkunde (Illiger) 2: 262.


The generic concept of the genus Limonia used here is presented in a restricted sense with all recognized subgeneric divisions recognized by Alexander ( ) removed and either elevated to generic level or placed as subgenera of other genera. Thbe definition of Limonia is presented here based on the wing venation and male genetalic structure of the holotype of the genus, Limonia phragmitidis Schrank. It is defined by the long R1+2 wing vein (about 2x R2) and the singular gonostylus of the male hypopygium.

Based primarily on the possession of a shorted R1+2 vein that is in near alignment with R2 (also known as the 2nd Sc2 of Alexander), the restrictive definition of the genus used here results in the removal of many species previously listed under Limonia to be removed . Until a more extensive revision of the genus is completed, species of Limonia with the shorteded R1+2 are designated as Limonia (sensu lato) while those with an elongate R1+2 are designated as Limonia (sensu stricto).

Limonia indigena wing

Limonia indigena hypopygium
Figure 2. Male hypopygium of Limonia indignea Osten Sacken (scale bar = 0.5 mm).


The genus Limonia (s.s. and s.l.) currently contains 210 species and is strongly a Neotropical group (129 species) that is much less represented in the Holarctic (21 spp.), Afrotropical (16 species), Australian/Oceanic (7 species), and Oriental (23 species) Regions.

Larval Habitat: 

The known larval habitat for the species of Limonia has been determined for only a small number of species, but it seems to show a substantial varialbility. Larval habitats show a range from rich organic earth, margins of streams and lakes, saturated soils, wet to saturated wood, to decaying plant material and fungi.