Interaction between Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner and the parasites and predators of Spodoptera littoralis in Egypt
Authors: Salama, H.S., Zaki, F.N.
Journal, Volume, Year: Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, volume 95:425-429, 1983
Study of a parasite (Zele chlorophthalma) and a predator (Paederus alferii) reared on Bt-fed Spodoptera littoralis. The parasite showed significantly reduced emergence, reproductive potential, and development. There were no adverse effects observed on the predator.
Adverse effects on parasite likely due to reduced fitness of Spodoptera littoralis, as seen in other studies.