Tritrophic interactions of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn, Anaphothrips obscurus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and the predator Orius majusculus (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)
Authors: Zwahlen, C., Nentwig, W., Bigler, F., Hilbeck, A.
Journal, Volume, Year: Environmental Entomology, volume 29(4):846-850, 2000
Laboratory feeding experiments using Bt 11 (Cry1Ab), thrips (Anaphothrips obscurus), and the predator (Orius majusculus) were conducted and development and mortality of Orius were monitored. Test was designed as a basis for standardized registrational testing for transgenic plants with small predators. No lethal or sublethal effects were observed for Orius feeding on either treatment. Mortality was generally low across treatments. It is unclear if the thrips ingest much, or any, Bt, but corn fed thrips were good prey.
If the method is to be used as a pre-registration, the prey must be a significant food source to the predator, or be known to "carry" the toxin of question.