Absence of toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis pollen to black swallowtails under field conditions
Authors: Wraight, C.L., Zangerl, A.R., Carroll, M.J., Berenbaum, M.R.
Journal, Volume, Year: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, volume 97:7700-7703, 2000
Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the toxicity of Bt corn pollen (event 810) to black swallowtails. The field study found no association between mortality and proximity to a field of Bt corn or levels of Bt pollen deposited on host plants. In addition, pollen, at levels that far exceeded field densities, failed to cause mortality in laboratory experiments.
Interesting study that showed that there are probable differences between toxicity to different species of Lepidoptera (i.e.. Monarchs).