Transgenic pollen harms monarch larvae
Authors: Losey, J.E., Rayor, L.S., Carter, M.E.
Journal, Volume, Year: Nature, volume 399:214, 1999
Report of the toxic effect on monarch butterflies of corn pollen containing the toxin from Bt var kurstaki deposited on milkweed leaves. Reported significant decreases in larval survival on milkweed dusted with Bt-containing pollen versus non-Bt pollen and plain milkweed.
Did not use quantitative amounts of pollen/Bt toxin.