Toxicity of Bt var. kurstaki to three nontarget lepidoptera in field studies
Authors: Johnson, K. S., Scriber, J.M., Nitao, J.K., Smitley, D.R.
Journal, Volume, Year: Environmental Entomology, volume 24(2):288-297, 1995
This study tested the effects of Bt kurstaki aerial sprays in forest situations against three lepidopterans (Papilio glaucus, P. canadensis, and Callosamia promethea). Aerial applications were simulated using a backpack sprayer at field rates. Larvae were placed on trees 0-1 day after spraying and monitored for survival for 7-8 days. This study showed high mortality. A long-term test was performed by placing larvae on trees every 10 days after spraying. Effects persisted for 30 days.
The study also mentioned large differences between species that might account for some length of effects. Good study but used non-transgenic Bt. Showed probable residual non-target effects.