Persistence and nontarget effects of Bacillus thuringiensis in soil: a review
Authors: Addison, J. A.
Journal, Volume, Year: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, volume 23:2329-2342, 1993
This is a review of the persistence and nontarget effects of Bt in soil. Studies have found that Bt is able to survive up to several years after spraying; however, persistence and accumulation of Bt spores is not well known. There is conflicting information regarding the effects of Bt on soil microflora. In addition, toxicity of Bt to nematodes, earthworms, spiders, springtails and mites has been demonstrated, but dose-response relationships and relevance to field situations have not been determined.
Although this is a good review for Bt spores, it does not address transgenic plants containing Btk toxin. In addition, several of the experiments included in this review that showed toxicity to different organisms may have contained the exotoxin.