Authors:Lam, W-K. F., and L. P, Pedigo
Title:A predictive model for the survival of overwintering bean leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
Summary: Survival of overwintering bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster), populations in woodland and soybean habitats was studied for three consecutive winters from 21996 through 1999. Four locations of soybean habitats was studied for three consecutive winters from 1996 through 1999. Four locations of soybean fields and three locations of woodlands were studied at Iowa State university farms near Ames, IA. In the winter of 1996-1997, woodlands and sobean fields were sampled monthly from mid-November through mid-April of the following year, whereas in the winters of 1997-1988 and 1998-1999, both habitats were sampled twice a month from mid-October through mid-April. On each sampling date, three sampling units (1 m2) of leaf litter or crop residue was randomly collected from soybean field and woodlands at each location. The Collected samples were bagged and returned to the laboratory for estimates of overwintering beetles. The beetles obtained from the samples were kept in a freezer at -15oC for investigation of potential fungal pathogens  and ectoparasitic mites. During the three-winter study, the mortality of overwintering beetles in soybean fields (77.04-88.89%) was higher than those in woodlands (48.9-82.29%). The effects of winter temperature on beetle mortality and a predictive model for the overwintering beetle survivorship are discussed.