Flea NewsVolume 53


Produced by R.E. Lewis, Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011
FLEA NEWS is a biannual newsletter devoted to matters involving insects belonging to the order Siphonaptera (fleas) and related subjects. It is compiled and distributed free of charge by Robert E. Lewis (relewis@iastate.edu) with the support of the Department of Entomology at Iowa State University, Ames, IA, and a grant in aid from Sandoz Animal Health, based in Des Plaines, IL. It is mainly bibliographic in nature. Many of the sources are abstracting journals and title pages and not all citations have been checked for completeness or accuracy. Additional information will be provided upon written or e-mail request. Further, recipients are urged to contribute items of interest to the profession for inclusion herein.

This newsletter is now available in electronic format. The preferred method of accessing the electronic version is through the World-Wide Web at the following Universal Resource Locator: http://www.ent.iastate.edu/fleanews/aboutfleanews.html or through either Gopher or anonymous FTP: gopher.ent.iastate.edu in the "Publications" directory. Electronic versions are available for No. 46, July, 1993; No. 47, December, 1993; No. 48, July, 1994; No. 49, December, 1994; No 50, June, 1995; No. 51, December, 1995 and this number.

The opinions and assertions contained herein are the private ones of the author and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the Department of Entomology, Iowa State University or Sandoz Animal Health.


Contents:


Announcement

NOTICE Effective 1-January-1997 I will have retired from the Iowa State University. I intend to remain active professionally and will continue to produce this newsletter as long as there is support for it. After January first I may be contacted in the following ways:

Snail Mail; 3906 Stone Brooke Circle, Ames, IA 50010-4174
Telephone; (515) 232 7714
Fax; (515) 233 1851
E-mail; relewis@iastate.edu


BOOK REVIEWS

Since the last issue of Flea News, three rather extensive publications have appeared dealing with three separate parts of the world. Two of these are faunal inventories, one for North America north of Mexico (not yet published at this writing), the other for Australia. The third is a more comprehensive treatment of the South African fauna. Following are reviews of these publications.

Nomina Insecta Nearctica
Volume 3. Diptera, Lepidoptera, Siphonaptera.

Compiled by Robert W. Poole and edited by Robert W. Poole and Patricia Gentili. Published by Entomological Information Services. P. O. Box 4350, Rockville, MD 20849-4350 USA.

In Flea News 52: 600 I briefly mentioned this series, based on an announcement of the publication of Volume 1, which dealt with the Coleoptera and Strepsiptera. Shortly thereafter I was contacted by Dr. Poole, inquiring whether I would be willing to cooperate with him by providing the chapter on the Siphonaptera for Volume 3. This I have done, and it is my understanding that the volume will be available early in January of 1997. Though I have not seen the finished product, I have a copy of the chapter in its final form, and am basing this review on it.
The Siphonaptera chapter differs from those dealing with the other orders in that it includes subspecies. Opposed as I am to the subspecies category, arbitrarily ignoring it in this order without resorting to studying the types would be both confusing and a disservice to the taxonomic community. As I point out under the heading of STATISTICS, "... the subjective nature of the infraspecific category itself makes it likely that the number of valid North American taxa will diminish rather than increase as generic revisions are completed."
The chapter begins with a brief Introduction and a short section on Statistics, including the number of species erected for the North American fauna from 1758 to 1996 in increments of 10 years. Following this is a table in which the eight families found in North America are named, with the total number of names associated with each family, followed by the actual number of "valid" species names. The totals are 562 names and 314 valid species.
Next is a list of all of the family names that have been applied in the order, including junior synonyms, and families not represented in North America. The junior synonyms are associated with currently accepted family names. There follows a classification of the North American Siphonaptera in which the eight families are assigned to five superfamilies following the system established by Smit (1982) in S. P. Parker (ed.) Synopsis and classification of living organisms. McGraw-Hill Book Company, pp. 557-563.
The remainder of the chapter consists of three parts in which the North American fauna is listed in differing formats. The first is an alphabetical listing of the families under which the genera and species are also listed alphabetically, as well as their original generic designation, subspecies, synonyms and other invalid applications. Generic synonyms and other misapplications are included under their respective genera. The second part is an alphabetical list of all species, subspecies and synonyms, including the name of the author, original generic assignment, family and present generic assignment. Junior synonyms are accompanied by their senior counterparts. The last section is an alphabetical list of all genera, their authors and family assignment. Junior synonyms are also indicated. The last two sections are indices and the finished product will include page numbers.
While such checklists provide little beyond nomenclatural information, they are essential, since they are an indication of taxonomic opinion at the time of publication and provide a framework for a more extensive treatment of the group. It is the expectation of the compiler that this series will ultimately be extended to include the entire world fauna.

Calder, A. N. (1996). Siphonaptera.
pp. 136-181, 185-197 (App. IV), 222-226 (Index). In: A. Wells (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Volume 28. Neuroptera, Strepsiptera, Mecoptera, Siphonaptera. Melbourne : CSIRO Publishing, Australia ISBN 0-643-05801-X. P.O.Box 1139 [Oxford Street]
Collingwood, Victoria 3066, Australia). sales@publish.csiro.au

Over the years the scientific community has come to expect a level of excellence from the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization and its associates seldom approximated in other parts of the world. The Zoological Catal ogue of Australia, compiled under the auspices of the Australian Biological Resources Study and published by the CSIRO admirably continues this tradition. Although four insect orders are included in Volume 28, the following review applies only to the chapter on the Siphonaptera by Andrew A. Calder.
Page 136 contains illustrations of the head and prothorax of representatives of eight of the nine siphonapteran families found in Australia and adjacent islands. The next six pages contain introductory remarks on the order, brief notes about the catalogue, acknowledgements and a list of pertinent references. The following pages contain accounts of the families, genera and species known from the country, arranged alphabetically. Each family account begins with a brief introduction and a list of pertinent references. The genera, subgenera, species and subspecies are ac companied by appropriate bibliographic, nomenclatural and distributional information, as well as host associations. Primary type data are also included. Discounting the few recognized subspecies, the 34 genera and 81 species are distributed as follows:

Ceratophyllidae 3 : 4 (3)
Hystrichopsyllidae 2 : 2
Ischnopsyllidae 4 : 7
Leptopsyllidae 1 : 1 (1)
Macropsyllidae 2 : 2
Pulicidae 5 : 20 (7):
Pygiopsyllidae 14 : 33
Rhopalopsyllidae 1 : 4
Stephanocircidae 2 : 8

Eleven of these species are deemed adventive by this reviewer and these are indicated by the numbers in parentheses after the Ceratophyllidae, Leptopsyllidae and Pulicidae.
Appendix IV contains a listing of the host-flea associations. Ignoring the single species taken from a snake as an accidental association, 41 avian and 121 mammalian taxa are listed as hosts of Australian fleas. There is also a separate index for the Siphonaptera, as there is for the three other insect orders included in this volume.
Certainly the most detailed treatment of the Australian flea fauna is that of Dunnet and Mardon (1974) (Australian Journal of Zoology. Supplementary Series No. 30: 1-273) and workers seeking identification of Australian collections must still refer to it for the necessary keys. However, in the intervening 22 years a few no menclatural changes have been made and these may be easily traced in the present volume. They are described below, with the understanding that the comments apply only to the Australian members of the genera.
Ceratophyllidae
Although Dunnet and Mardon (1974) mention Glaciopsyllus antarcticus Smit and Dunnet, 1962, it is not included in their key to the genera.
Ischnopsyllidae
Serendipsylla marshalli Smit, 1975, was unknown in 1974.
Pygiopsyllidae
Certainly the most changes have been made in this family, and doubtless many more await.
Acanthopsylla incerta
Holland, 1971, was synonymized with A. pavida (Rothschild, 1916) by Mardon (1981).
Choristopsylla leptophallus Mardon, 1977, brings to four the species assigned to this genus.
Bibikovana Traub, 1980, as erected for species formerly assigned to Pygiopsylla Rothschild, 1906, is as follows: arcuata (Holland, 1971); colossa (Rothschild, 1906); gravis (Rothschild, 1908); iridis (Holland, 1971); rainbowi (Rothschild, 1908), and rainbowi inusitata Mardon and Allison, 1982, was subsequently described.
Pygiopsylla is now restricted to: hilli (Rothschild, 1904); hoplia Jordan and Rothschild, 1922; phiola Smit, 1979; tunneyi Mardon and Dunnet, 1972, and zethi (Rothschild, 1904).
In summary, this is a most useful treatment of the flea fauna, both because of its currency and its format. The author, although not a specialist in fleas, has done an excellent job of reviewing the pertinent literature and nomenclature in the order and should be highly commended for his accomplishment.

Segerman, J. (1995). Siphonaptera of southern Africa. Handbook for the identification of fleas. Publications of the South African Institute for Medical Research No. 57. 264 pp. ISBN No. 1-874813-06-X. Natal Witness Printing and Publishing Company. (price not known). SAIMR, Hospital Street, P.O.Box 1038, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa.

It has been slightly over 35 years since the publication of DeMeillon, Davis and Hardy (1961), Plague in Southern Africa. Volume 1. The Siphonaptera (excluding) Ischnopsyllidae, and Marcus (1961) "The bat fleas of Southern Africa (Siphon aptera: Ischnopsyllidae)." (J. Entomol. Soc. S. Afr. 24(1): 173-211). During this period much research has been pursued in southern Africa, both on the flea fauna and its relationship to disease transmission, specifically, plague. Now the fauna is well known, and it is likely that few, if any, additional taxa will be discovered. This volume by Joyce Segerman deals with essentially the same geographical area as the publications cited above and is an admirable summary of accomplish ments during the intervening period. However, as might be expected, some changes in nomenclature and species allocation have taken place over this period and these are noted below.
The families Ceratophyllidae (2 genera/3 species); Leptopsyllidae (1/2); Rhopalopsyllidae (1/1) and Tungidae (1/1) are identical in both works. The family name Hypsophth almidae Wagner, 1939, (7/24) has been replaced by the Chimaeropsyllidae Cunha, 1941, in the Segerman volume, Demeillonia miriamae Hopkins and DeMeillon, 1964, has been added, and Chiastopsylla mulleri is treated as three subspecies, the nominate form, C. m. longisetis Ingram, 1927, and C. m. simplex Haeselbarth, 1965.
In the Hystrichopsyllidae (4/17), Cryptoctenopsyllus Wagner, 1939, is assigned as a subgenus of Dinopsyllus Jordan and Rothschild, 1913, for D. ingens (Rothschild, 1900). Listropsylla chelura alticola Haeselbarth, 1963, has been added. DeMeillon et al. (1961) included specimens of Listropsylla cerrita Jordan, 1930, in their account of L. chelura. These have been sorted out by Haeselbarth and L. cerrita juliae Haeselbarth, 1963, has been added.
In the Ischnopsyllidae (7/11) Lagaropsylla anciauxi Smit, 1957, and L. hoogstraali Smit, 1957, have been added.
The largest family, the Pulicidae (8/48) also contains the most changes. In 1961 Echidnophaga inexpectata Smit, 1950, was known from wart-hogs in Kenya, but was extralimital to the coverage of DeMeillon et al. It was not until 1962 that the genus Neotunga was erected by Smit for a subdermal parasite of the pangolin, Manis temmincki, collected in Zimbabwe. The nominate species was N. euloidea Smit, and it was not until later that Smit and Wright, 1978, shifted E. inexpectata to the genus Neotunga without further comment. Here the matter remained until a number of specimens tentatively identified as N. inexpectata were taken from warthogs by Horak and associates in Zimbabwe, Botswana, Natal and Kruger National Park. Critical examination of these specimens suggested that they belonged to neither Echidnophaga nor Neotunga, but to an unnamed genus, which was subsequently erected by Beaucournu and Horak as Phacopsylla, in 1994 (J. Afr. Zool. 108: 133). As a result, there are now four species of Echidnophaga known from southern Africa: E. aethops, bradyta, gallinacea and larina. Both Neotunga and Phacopsylla are monotypic, and both are echidnophagan in their phylogenetic affinities, though the former has the tungoid tendency for some females to become subdermal neosomes as reproductive adults. Unfortunately, males of this species are as yet unknown, or at least undescribed, and mating behavior cannot be predicted based on the configuration of the male genitalia.
Changes in Xenopsylla include the removal of X. davisi from the hirsuta species group and assigning it and X. demeilloni Haselbarth, 1964, to the davisi species group (which is not included in the key to the species groups). Specimens assigned to X. roberti in DeMeillon et al. (1961), an East African taxon, were assigned to a new species, X. zumpti by Haselbarth in 1963, and this and X. hirsuta multisetosa Haeselbarth, 1964, increase the southern African Xenopsylla taxa to 31 from the original 29.
By and large, the book is well done and should well serve the entomological community for some time to come. The volume seems well indexed and contains a detailed host/flea index. The only two criticisms I have pertain to editorial matters, not content, and certainly do not reflect unfavorably on the author. First, the illustrations are interleaved in the text in such a way that most are not adjacent to the species accounts, and many of them only occupy half of the page, the remain der of the page being blank. Better integration of the drawings and the text would have made the volume easier to use. Second, while of considerable value, the distribution maps are also scattered through the text, further disrupting the flow of the prose. Better they had been included as an appendix, particularly since they occupy only half of the page, again with the remainder of the page blank. With appropriate reduction, four to six maps could have been printed on a single page while still conveying the same amount of information.
In fact, these are minor points and this volume represents the results of a century of intense research by dedicated scientists such as the author, Bootha DeMeillon, Tilly Marcus, Fritz K. E. Zumpt, Erasmus Haeselbarth, Felicity Hardy and David H. S. Davis. Through their efforts the flea fauna of southern Africa is as well known as that of Europe or North America, and these scientists are all to be congratulated for the fruits of their labors.

MISCELLANEA

The 4th International Symposium on Ectoparasites of Pets will be held in Riverside, CA, April 6-8, 1997. Deadline for paper submissions (title and 250 word abstract) is January 3rd. Reservations deadline is February 28th. For more information, contact: NHinkle@citrus.ucr.edu or call Judy Leonard (909) 787 5806. Check out the Symposium web page at: http//entmuseum9.ucr.edu/colloq/pets.html.

The Society for Vector Ecology is sponsoring the Second International Congress of Vector Ecology in Orlando, FL, October 19-24, 1997. The Congress will be held at the Holiday Inn International Drive Resort. For further information and registration materials contact Gilbert L. Challet, Secretary-Treasurer, P. O. Box 87, Santa Ana, CA 92702, USA. Phone: (714) 971-2421, Ext. 148, Fax: (714) 971-3940.

Under Break Throughs in Science, Technology and Medicine, the November issue of Discovery Magazine briefly described studies at the Rocky Mountain Laboratories involving the plague bacillus, Yersinia pestis. It seems that in order to be effective in blocking the flea digestive system, thus permitting the transmission of plague, the fleas must have genes that code for proteins that bind hemin, the iron-carrying molecule found in blood. Fleas lacking this hms locus do not become blocked and feed normally without transmission. Bacteria with this locus not only colonize the flea digestive tract, but also clump in the valve between the foregut and the midgut (the proventriculus) preventing blood from passing through the gut and causing the flea to engage in increased feeding activity. (See also: Hinnebusch, et al., 1996, Science 273(5273): 367-370.)

The following colleagues have contributed reprints and other bibliographic information since the last newsletter: D. Cyprich, N. F. Darskaya, J.-M. Doby, M. Gomez, J. Greve, C. Hopla, E. Krafsur, K. Larsen, LI K.-c., M. Mei, J. Pinowski and W. Rowley. Thank you for your assistance!


Obituaries

Robert S Traub
26-October-1916 € 21-December-1996

RS TraubIt is with great sadness and a sense of loss that we announce the passing of Dr. Robert Traub after an extended illness. Even though I have known Bob Traub since the early 1950's and am familiar with his many contributions to the fields of medical entomology, arachnology and microbiology, I do not feel capable of summarizing his many accomplishments appropriately. Better this be done by someone who has been a more constatnt colleague and closer friend than has been possible for me at this distance. Instead, I will concentrate on the bare facts of his life and restrict myself to his contributions to the study of the Siphonaptera.
Bob Traub was born in New York City, NY, and died in the Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, MD. He received the Bachelor of Science degree, cum laude, in Biology in 1938 from the City College of New York (now City University of New York). He earned the M.S. degree from Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, in 1939 with a major in Medical Entomology and a minor in Veterinary Bacteriology. Later that year he entered the graduate program in Entomology at the University of Illinois at Urbana, IL, but interrupted his studies to join the United States Army in 1942. He returned after the war to receive the Ph.D. from the University of Illinois in 1947 with a major in Medical Entomology and a minor in Helminthology. His dissertation, titled Siphonaptera from Central America and Mexico, a morphological study of the aedeagus, with descriptions of new genera and species, was published by the Field Museum of Natural History in 1950 as Memoire No. 1. However, he remained in the Army and retired in 1962 with the rank of Colonel. He then joined the faculty of the Department of Microbiology of the University of Maryland Medical School as a Professor of Medical Entomology and Research. There he remained for the next 20 years, formally retiring in late 1983. He then assumed the role of Honorary Curator of Siphonaptera at the United States National Museum of Natural History, a position he occupied until 1994.
At the University of Illinois and in the Army, Bob was a part of a generation of young biological scientists who have collectively made as great or greater impact in the fields of Medical Entomology and Acarology than had any generation before them. Most were military service personnel during World War II, and many remained in the military after the end of hostilities. Practically all subsequently pursued advanced degrees in the Biological Sciences, and most retained an appreciation of the basic science of arthropod systematics throughout their career. Bob Traub was preeminent among them.
The bulk of Traub's research activity centered in geographical areas other than North America north of Mexico, and particular emphasis was directed toward southern Mexico, northern Africa, and especially southeast Asia. According to my records, during his career Bob described 30 new genera or subgenera, and 114 new species or subspecies alone. In addition to his work on mites and other medically important arthropods. He authored, co-authored or edited over 200 technical publications, at least 93 of which dealt with fleas or flea literature. He was a member of many professional societies and the recipient of numerous citations, honors and awards, both foreign and domestic.
Bob was a great fighter who bore the burden of physical afflictions stoically, always maintaining his unique sense of humor in spite of them. His body has been cremated and the ashes are to be interred at Arlington Memorial Cemetary. A memorial service is planned for January 11th at the Cedar Lane Unitarian Church in Bethesda. He will be sorely missed by the scientific community, as well as by his many friends and colleagues.

References on Fleas Authored by Traub

New North American fleas. Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 29(15): 211-220 (1944).

A new species of flea of the genus Opisodasys from Mexico. J. Wash. Acad. Sci 37(4): 134-139 (1947a).

Book review. Fleas of western North America. By C. A. Hubbard. Iowa State College Press, Ames, IA. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 49(7): 199-200 (1947b).

Siphonaptera from Central America and Mexico: A morphological study of the aedeagus, with descriptions of new genera and species Fieldiana, Zool. Mem. 1: 1-127 (1950a).

Notes on Indo-Malayan fleas, with descriptions of new species (Siphonaptera). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 53(3): 109-143 (1950b).

Sigmactenus, a new genus of flea from the Philippines. J. Wash Acad. Sci. 40(11): 371-378 (1950c).

Two new fleas of the family Tungidae. J. Parasitol. 36(3): 270-273 (1950) (Traub, R. and J. G. Gammons)

Fleas collected by the Chicago Natural History Museum Expedition to the Philippines. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 64: 1-21 (1951a).

Hoogstraalia turdella, a new genus and species of flea from the Philippines (Siphonaptera: Pygiopsyllidae: Pygiopsyllinae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 53(2): 97-104 (1951b).

Records and descriptions of fleas from New Mexico. Am. Mus. Novitates 1530: 1-23 (1951). (Traub, R. and C. C. Hoff)

Jordanopsylla allredi, a new genus and species of flea from Utah (Siphonaptera). J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 41(8): 264-270 (1951) (Traub, R. and V. J. Tipton)

Records and descriptions of fleas from Peru (Siphonaptera). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 54(1): 1-22 (1952a).

Johnsonaepsylla audeyi, a new genus and new species of flea from North Borneo, with notes on the subfamily Leptopsyllinae (Siphonaptera). J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 42(9): 288-296 (1952b).

Fleas collected during a plague survey in Venezuela. Bol. Ofic. Sanit. Pan-Am. 32(2): 111-135 (1952a). (Traub, R. and P. T. Johnson)

Kohlsia whartoni and Stenoponia ponera, new species of fleas from North America. J. Parasitol. 38(1): 6-18 (1952b). (Traub, R. and P. T. Johnson)

Atyphloceras tancitari and Jellisonia bonia, new species of fleas from Mexico (Siphonaptera). Am. Mus. Novitates 1558: 1-19 (1952c). (Traub, R. and P. T. Johnson)

Four new species of fleas from Mexico (Siphonaptera) Am. Mus. Novitates 1598: 1-28 (1952d). (Traub, R. and P. T. Johnson)

Wenzella obscura, a new genus and new species of flea from Guatemala (Siphonaptera) J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 43(3): 77-85 (1953a).

Hollandipsylla neali, a new genus and new species of flea from North Borneo, with comments on eyeless fleas (Siphonaptera). J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 43(11): 346-353b).

Malaysian Parasites. XI. Sigmactenus alticola and Neopsylla luna, new species of fleas from North Borneo. Stud. Inst. Med. Res. F. M. S. 26: 184-194 (1954a).

Two new fleas of the genus Araeopsylla Jordan and Rothschild, 1921 (Siphonaptera). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 56(4): 161-172 (1954b).

Advances in our knowledge of military medical importance of mites and fleas due to postwar experiences in the Pacific area. In: "Recent advances in medicine and surgery based on professional medical experiences in Japan and Korea." A. M. S. G. S. Med. Sci. Publ. No. 42: 284-294. (Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, D. C.) (1954c)

Revision of the genus Peromyscopsylla. Smithson. Misc. Coll. 123(4): 1-68 (1954). (P. T. Johnson and R. Traub)

Karl Jordan's studies on Siphonaptera. Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 107: 33-42 (1955)

Three new fleas of the genus Strepsylla Traub (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae). Fieldiana, Zool. 37: 541-559 (1955). (Traub, R. and A. Barrera)

The genus Cratynius Jordan (Siphonaptera) and its systematic position, with a description of a new species. Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 107: 249-264 (1955). (Hopkins, G. H. E. and R. Traub)

Malaysian Parasites. XVII. Four new species of fleas (Siphonaptera). Stud. Inst. Med. Res. F. M. S. 28: 35-64 (1957a).

Results of the NAMRU-3 southeastern Egypt expedition. 4. Fleas (Siphonaptera). Bull. Zool. Soc. Egypt 13: 41-44 (1957). (Traub, R. and H. Hoogstraal)

Book review. An illustrated catalogue of the Rothschild collection of fleas (Siphonaptera) in the British Museum (Natural History). G. H. E. Hopkins and M. Rothschild. British Museum (Natural History). Vol. III. Hystrichopsyllidae. Nature 196(4852): 304 (1962).

Distribution of certain fleas and their hosts in Malaya and Borneo. Abstracts of papers of the Ninth Pacific Science Congress, Bangkok, Thailand (1957), pp. 91-92. Proc. 9th Pacif. Sci. Congr. 9 (Ent.): 58-59 (1963a)

The fleas of Egypt. Hopkinsipsylla occulta, a new genus and species of flea parasitizing jerboas (Siphonaptera: Leptopsyllidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 65(1): 1-13 (1963b).

The fleas of Egypt. Two new species of the genus Nosopsyllus Jordan, 1933 (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 65(2): 81-97 (1963c).

Two new African Ctenophthalmus (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae) collected by the U. S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3. Proc. Helm. Soc. Wash. 30(2): 266-280 (1963d).

The fleas (Siphonaptera) of Egypt. Hostparasite relationships of Insectivora and Chiroptera. J. Egypt. Publ. Hlth. Assoc. 38(3): 111-130 (1963a) . (Hoogstraal, H. and R. Traub)

The fleas (Siphonaptera) of Egypt. Host-parasite relationships of Lagomorpha (Hares). J. Egypt. Publ. Hlth. Assoc. 38(5): 243-246 (1963b) . (Hoogstraal, H. and R. Traub)

Notas sobre Sifonaptéros. X. Description de Strepsylla machadoi nov. sp. (Siph., Hystrichops., Neops.). Ciencia, Mex. 22(6): 191-196 (1963). (Barrera, A. and R. Traub)

Flea. Encyclopaedia Brittanica 9: 431-433 (1964).

A new subgenus of Ophthalmopsylla from Gilgit, West Pakistan, and a new Hopkinsipsylla from Libya (Siphonaptera: Leptopsyllidae). J. Med. Entomol. 2(2): 123-136 (1965).

The fleas (Siphonaptera) of Egypt. Host-parasite relationships of Carnivora. J. Egypt. Publ. Hlth. Assoc. 41(2): 75-91 (1965). (Hoogstraal, H. and R. Traub)

New species of Ctenophthalmus from Mexico, with notes on the ctenidia of shrew-fleas (Siphonaptera) as examples of convergent evolution. J. Med. Entomol. 3(2): 127-145 (1966) (Traub, R. and A. Barrera)

Notes and descriptions of some leptopsyllid fleas (Siphonaptera). J. Med. Entomol. 4(3): 340-359 (1967a). (Traub, R. and T. M. Evans)

Descriptions of new species of hystrichopsyllid fleas, with notes on arched pronotal combs, convergent evolution and zoogeography (Siphonaptera). Pacif. Insects 9(4): 603-677 (1967b). (Traub, R. and T. M. Evans)

Book review. An illustrated catalogue of the Rothschild collection of fleas (Siphonaptera) in the British Museum (Natural History). G. H. E. Hopkins and M. Rothschild. British Museum (Natural History). Vol. III. Hystrichopsyllidae (concluded). 1966. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am. 14(1): 81-82 (1968a)

Smitella thambetosa, n. gen. and n. sp., a remarkable "helmeted" flea from New Guinea (Siphonaptera: Pygiopsyllidae) with notes on convergent evolution. J. Med. Entomol. 5(3): 375-404 (1968b).

Evansipsylla thysanota, a new genus and new species of flea from Nepal (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae). J. Med. Entomol. 5(4): 411-421 (1968c).

Book review. Ectoparasites of Panama. R. L. Wenzel and V. J. Tipton (eds.). Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am. 14(2): 143-145 (1968d)

Muesebeckella, a new genus of flea from New Guinea (Siphonaptera: Pygiopsyllidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 71(3): 374-396 (1969).

Appendix B - Entomological Report, pp. 123-155. In: R. M. Worth and N. K. Shah, Nepal Health Survey. 158 pp (1969). (Traub, R. M. Nadchatram)

Book review. Contributions towards a monograph of the fleas of New Guinea. By G. P. Holland. Mem. Entomol. Soc. Canada. No. 61. 77 pp. J. Med. Entomol. 7(5): 629-630 (1970a).

Book review. Contributions towards a monograph of the fleas of New Guinea. By G. P. Holland. Mem. Entomol. Soc. Canada. No. 61. 77 pp. Pacif. Insects 12(4): 886-888 (1970b)

Survey of Bulolo for fleas and trombiculid mites. Papua and New Guinea Med. J. 13(2): 62-64 (1970). (Traub, R., A. B. Mirza, M. Nadchatram and E. B. Mann)

Book review. Contributions towards a monograph of the fleas of New Guinea. By G. P. Holland. Mem. Entomol. Soc. Canada. No. 61. 77 pp. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 20(1): 160-161 (1971a)

Book review. Contributions towards a monograph of the fleas of New Guinea. By G. P. Holland. Mem. Entomol. Soc. Canada. No. 61. 77 pp. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Canada 3(2): 26-28 (1971b).

A revised glossary of terms used in the taxonomy and morphology of fleas. pp. 8-85. In: An illustrated catalogue of the Rothschild collection of fleas (Siphonaptera) in the British Museum (Natural History). G. H. E. Hopkins and M. Rothschild. British Museum (Natural History). Vol. V. Leptopsyllidae. (1971). (Rothschild, M. and R. Traub)

Book review. A revision of the flea genus Thrassis Jordan, 1933 (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae) with observations on ecologey and relationship to plague. University of Calif. Publ. Entomol. 53: 1 184. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 21(2): 247-248 (1972a).

Notes on zoogeography, convergent evolution and taxonomy of fleas (Siphonaptera), based on collections from Gunong Benom and elsewhere in southeast Asia. I. New taxa (Pygiopsyllidae: Pygiopsyllinae). Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Zool.) 23(9): 201-305 (1972b).

Notes on zoogeography, convergent evolution and taxonomy of fleas (Siphonaptera), based on collections from Gunong Benom and elsewhere in southeast Asia. II. Convergent evolution. Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Zool.) 23(10): 307-387 (1972b).

Notes on zoogeography, convergent evolution and taxonomy of fleas (Siphonaptera), based on collections from Gunong Benom and elsewhere in southeast Asia. III. Zoogeography. Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Zool.) 23(11): 389-450 (1972c).

The colloquium on the zoogeography and ecology of ectoparasites, their hosts and related infections at the Second International Congress of Parasitology, Washington, D. C., 1970. 2. The zoogeography of fleas (Siphonaptera) as supporting the theory of continental drift. J. Med. Entomol. 9(6): 584-589 (1972e)

The colloquium on the zoogeography and ecology of ectoparasites, their hosts and related infections at the Second International Congress of Parasitology, Washington, D. C., 1970. 23. The relationship between the spines, combs and other skeletal features of fleas (Siphonaptera) and the vestiture, affinities and habits of their hosts. J. Med. Entomol. 9(6): 601 (1972f).

The colloquium on the zoogeography and ecology of ectoparasites, their hosts and related infections at the Second International Congress of Parasitology, Washington, D. C., 1970. 27. Notes on fleas and the ecology of plague. J. Med. Entomol. 9(6): 603 (1972g).

Revision of the siphonapteran genus Stephanocircus Skuse, 1893 (Stephanocircidae). Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. No. 20: 41-128 (1973). (Traub, R. and G. M. Dunnet)

Siphonaptera. Encyclopaedia Brittanica. 15th Edition. pp. 807-809 (1974). (Rothschild, M. and R. Traub)

Book review. A monograph of Australian fleas (Siphonaptera). By G. M. Dunnet and D. K. Mardon. 1974. J. Med. Entomol. 13(2): 217-218. (1976).

Tiflovia, a new genus of pygiopsyllid fleas from New Guinea, with notes on convergent evolution and zoogeography (Siphonaptera). J. Med. Entomol. 13(6): 653-685 (1977a).

Fleas, mammals and continental drift. A talk presented at the general meeting of the Entomological Society of Queensland (Australia) and reported informally in the News Bulletin of the Society. 5(3): 32-36 (1977b).

Fleas. Proceedings of the International Conference on Fleas, Ashton Wold, England, June, 1977. R. Traub and H. Starcke (eds.). A. A. Balkema Publ., Rotterdam (1980).

New genera and subgenera of pygiopsyllid fleas (Siphonaptera). In: Fleas. Proceedings of the International Conference on Fleas, Ashton Wold, England, June, 1977. R. Traub and H. Starcke (eds.). A. A. Balkema Publ., Rotterdam (1980). pp. 13-29 (1980a)

Some adaptive modifications in fleas. In: Fleas. Proceedings of the International Conference on Fleas, Ashton Wold, England, June, 1977. R. Traub and H. Starcke (eds.). A. A. Balkema Publ., Rotterdam (1980). pp. 33-67 (1980b).

The zoogeography and evolution of some fleas, lice and mammals. In: Fleas. Proceedings of the International Conference on Fleas, Ashton Wold, England, June, 1977. R. Traub and H. Starcke (eds.). A. A. Balkema Publ., Rotterdam (1980). pp. 93-172 (1980c).

Coevolution of fleas and mammals. 16th International Congress of Entomology, Kyoto, Japan. August, 1980. Sect. II. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. p. 324 (Abstract) (1980d).

The ecology of murine typhus. In: Fleas. Proceedings of the International Conference on Fleas, Ashton Wold, Engand, June, 1977. R. Traub and H. Starcke (eds.). A. A. Balkma Publ., Rotterdam (1980). pp. 283-285 (1980). (Traub, R., C. L. Wissman and A. Farhang-Azad)

Book review. An atlas of the fleas of the eastern United States. By A. H. Benton. 1980. Marginal Media, Fredonia, NY. 177 pp. J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 89(3): 215-217 (1981).

Evolutionary and biogeographic history and the phylogeny of vectors and reservoirs as factors in the transmission of disease from other animals to man. In: Rickettsiae and rickettsial diseases. Proceedings of the Rocky Mountain Laboratory Conference on Rickettsiae and Rickettsial diseases, 1980. W. Burgdorfer and R. L. Anaker (eds.). pp 517-546 (1981). (Traub, R. and W. L. Jellison)

Studies on murine typhus rickettsiae and Xenopsylla cheopis fleas. In: Rickettsiae and rickettsial diseases. Proceedings of the Rocky Mountain Laboratory Conference on Rickettsiae and Rickettsial diseases, 1980. W. Burgdorfer and R. L. Anaker (eds.). pp 363-373 (1981). (Farhang-Azad, A., C. L. Wissman and R. Traub)

The Rothschild collection of fleas. The Ceratophyllidae: Key to the genera and host relationships. With notes on evolution, zoogeography and medical importance. Published by M. Rothschild, R. Traub, the Cambridge University Press and Academic Press, Cambridge and London. 288 pp. (1983a). (Traub, R., M. Rothschild and J. Haddow)

The hosts of ceratophyllid fleas. The Rothschild collection of fleas. The Ceratophyllidae: Key to the genera and host relationships. With notes on evolution, zoogeography and medical importance. Published by M. Rothschild, R. Traub, the Cambridge University Press and Academic Press, Cambridge and London. pp. 164-187 (1983b). (Traub, R., M. Rothschild and J. Haddow)

Distribution of ceratophyllid fleas and notes on their hosts. The Rothschild collection of fleas. The Ceratophyllidae: Key to the genera and host relationships. With notes on evolution, zoogeography and medical importance. Published by M. Rothschild, R. Traub, the Cambridge University Press and Academic Press, Cambridge and London. pp. 42-163 (1983). (Haddow, J., R. Traub and M. Rothschild)

Evolution of the Ceratophyllidae. The Rothschild collection of fleas. The Ceratophyllidae: Key to the genera and host relationships. With notes on evolution, zoogeography and medical importance. Published by M. Rothschild, R. Traub, the Cambridge University Press and Academic Press, Cambridge and London. pp. 188-201 (1983). (Traub, R. and M. Rothschild)

Medical importance of the Ceratophyllidae. The Rothschild collection of fleas. The Ceratophyllidae: Key to the genera and host relationships. With notes on evolution, zoogeography and medical importance. Published by M. Rothschild, R. Traub, the Cambridge University Press and Academic Press, Cambridge and London. pp. 202-228 (1983).

Rickettsia mooseri infection in the fleas Leptopsylla segnis and Xenopsylla cheopis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 32(6): 1392-1400 (1983). (Farhang-Azad, A, R. Traub and C. L. Wissman, Jr.)

Experimental murine typhus infection in the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis. J. Med. Entomol. 21(6): 675-680 (1984). (Farhang-Azad, A., R. Traub, M. Sofi and C. L. Wissman, Jr.)

Transovarial transmission of murine typhus rickettsiae in Xenopsylla cheopis fleas. Science 227(4686): 543-545 (1985). (Farhang-Azad, A., R. Traub and S. Baqar)

Transmission of murine typhus rickettsiae by Xenopsylla cheopis, with notes on experimental infection and effects of temperature. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 34(3): 555-563 (1985). (Farhang Azad, A. and R. Traub)

Coevolution of fleas and mammals. Chapter 8. In: Coevolution of parasitic arthropods and mammals. K. C. Kim (ed.). John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. pp. 295-437 (1985a).

List of parasitic arthropods associated with mammals. Order Siphonaptera. In: Coevolution of parasitic arthropods and mammals. K. C. Kim (ed.). John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. pp. 683 744 (1985b).

Transmission of murine typhus rickettsiae by Leptopsylla segnis (Siphonaptera: Leptopsyllidae). J. Med. Entomol. 24(6): 689-693 (1987). (Azad, A. F. and R. Traub)

Experimental transmisson of murine typhus by Xenopsylla cheopis flea bites. Med. and Vet. Entomol. 3: 429-433. (1989). (Azad, A. F. and R. Traub)

Diversity of parasitic insects: Anoplura, Mallophaga and Siphonaptera. pp 91-103. In: Systematics of the North American insects and arachnids: Status and needs. Agricultural Experiment Station Information Service. No. 90-1. Blacksburg: Virginia Polytechnique Institute and State University. M. Kosztarab and C. Schaefer (eds.). (1989). (Kim, K. C., K. C. Emerson and R. Traub)

Zoogeographical implications from rodent ectoparasites in Sulawesi. pp. 57-62. In: Insects of the rain forests of South East Asia (Wallacea). Royal Entomological Society of London. W. J. Knight and J. D. Holloway (eds.). (1990). (Durden, L. A. and R. Traub)

Genera and Subgenera erected by Traub
Afristivalius Traub, 1980
(Alloctenus) Traub and Barrera, 1966
Aviostivalius Traub, 1980
Bibikovana Traub, 1980
Coronapsylla Traub and Dunnet, 1973
(Destivalius) Traub, 1980
(Eremedosa) Traub, 1965
Evansipsylla Traub, 1968
=Genoneopsylla Wu, Wu and Liu, 1966
Farhangia Traub, 1980
Gryphopsylla Traub, 1957
Hollandipsylla Traub, 1953
Hoogstraalia Traub, 1951
Hopkinsipsylla Traub, 1963
Jellisonia Traub, 1944
Johnsonaeopsylla Traub, 1952
=Cratynius Jordan, 1933
Jordanopsylla Traub and Tipton, 1951
Kohlsia Traub, 1950
Lentistivalius Traub, 1972
Medwayella Traub, 1972
Migrastivalius Traub, 1980
=Gryphopsylla Traub, 1957
Muesebeckella Traub, 1969
Nestivalius Traub, 1980
(Penicus) Traub, 1963
Sigmactenus Traub, 1950
Smitella Traub, 1968
Strepsylla Traub, 1950
Syngenopsyllus Traub, 1950
Tiflovia Traub, 1977
Wenzella Traub, 1953

Species and Subspecies erected by Traub

1944
Jellisonia klotzi Traub
Epitedia stanfordi Traub
Peromyscopsylla duma Traub
=Peromyscopsylla selenis (Rothschild)
Corrodopsylla hamiltoni (Traub)
1947
Opisodasys hollandi Traub
1950
Jellisonia hayesi hayesi Traub
Jellisonia hayesi breviloba Traub
Jellisonia dybasi Traub
Plusaetis mathesoni (Traub)
Plusaetia parus (Traub)
Plusaetia equatoris asetus (Traub)
Plusaetis vermiformis (Traub)
Pleochaetis paramundus Traub
Baculomeris schmidti (Traub)
Kohlsia osgoodi Traub
Kohlsia graphis erana Traub
Kohlsia gammonsi Traub
Kohlsia uniseta Traub
Kohlsia cora Traub
Foxella hoogstraali Traub
Orchopeas fulleri Traub
Polygenis adocetus Traub
Ctenophthalmus haagi Traub
Ctenophthalmus expansus Traub
Ctenophthalmus sanborni Traub
Ctenophthalmus p. micropus Traub
Strepsylla mina Traub
Strepsylla fautini Traub
Corrodopsylla c. lira Traub
Pulex sinoculus Traub
Lentistivalius insolli (Traub)
Macrostylophora h. malayensis Traub
Macrostylophora h. nepali Traub
Acropsylla girshami Traub
Hectopsylla knighti Traub and Gammons
Rhynchopsyllus megastigmatus T. and G.
=Rhynchopsyllus pulex Haller
Sigmactenus werneri Traub
1951
Hoogstraalia turdella Traub
Nestivalius pomerantzi Traub
Stivalius ralius Traub
=Nestivalius pomerantzi Traub
Thaumapsylla longiforceps Traub
Meringis altipectin Traub and Hoff
Myodopsylla nordina Traub and Hoff
Jordanopsylla allredi Traub and Tipton
1952
Agastopsylla pearsoni Traub
Agastopsylla nylota Traub
Agastopsylla hirsutior Traub
Polygenis ambersoni Traub
=Polygenis dunni J. and R.
Kohlsia whartoni Traub and Johnson
Stenoponia ponera Traub and Johnson
Atyphloceras tancitari Traub and Johnson
Jellisonia bonia Traub and Johnson
Cratynius audyi (Traub)
Strepsylla davisae Traub and Johnson
Strepsylla taluna Traub and Johnson
Hystrichopsylla kris Traub and Johnson
Eumolpianus polumus (Traub and Johnson)
1953
Wenzella obscura Traub
Hollandipsylla neali Traub
1954
Sigmactenus alticola Traub
Neopsylla luma Traub
Araeopsylla wassifi Traub
Araeopsylla elbeli Traub
Peromyscopsylla h. cuneata Johnson and T.
1955
Strepsylla dalmati Traub and Barrera
Strepsylla schmidti Traub and Barrera
Strepsylla villai Traub and Barrera
Cratynius crypticus Hopkins and Traub
1957
Rothschildiana smiti Traub
Epitedia cavernicola Traub
Gryphopsylla hopkinsi Traub
Bibikovana tiptoni (Traub)
1963
Hopkinsipsylla occulta Traub
Nosopsyllus geneatus Traub
Nosopsyllus l. declivus Traub
Ctenophthalmus hoogstraali Traub
Ctenophthalmus tholatus Traub
1965
Ophthalmopsylla celata Traub
Hopkinsipsylla o. praeceps Traub
1966
Ctenophthalmus cryptotis Traub and Barrera
Ctenophthalmus myodosus Traub and Barrera
1967
Phalacropsylla nivalis Barrera and Traub
Mesopsylla t. propinacta Traub and Evans
Ophthalmopsylla v. impersia T. and E.
Palaeopsylla recava Traub and Evans
Palaeopsylla apsidata Traub and Evans
Palaeopsylla setzeri Traub and Evans
Palaeopsylla r. nesicola Traub and Evans
=Palaeopsylla remota Jordan
Doratopsylla wissemani Traub and Evans
Corrodopsylla barrerai Traub and Evans
1968
Smitella thambetosa Traub
Evansipsylla thysanota Traub
=Genoneopsylla longisetosa W.W. and L.
1969
Muesebeckella mannae Traub
Muesebeckella nadi Traub
1972
Medwayella dryadosa Traub
Medwayella arcuata Traub
Medwayella angustata Traub
Medwayella r. peregrinata Traub
Medwayella r. bogora Traub
Medwayella r. tiomanica Traub
Medwayella p. phangi Traub
Medwayella p. tana Traub
Medwayella limi Traub
Medwayella thurmani Traub
Medwayella calcarata Traub
Medwayella batibacula Traub
Medwayella veruta Traub
Lentistivalius vomerus Traub
Stivalius c. bamus Traub
1973
Stephancircus harrisoni Traub and Dunnet
Stephanocircus g. greeni Traub and Dunnet
Stephanocircus g. tasmanica T. and D.
Stephanocircus domrowi Traub and Dunnet
1977
Tiflovia pachnopoata Traub
Tiflovia stellalpestris Traub

Dorald Mervin Allred
11-July-1923 € 20-June-1996
Dorald Allred was born in Lehi, Utah, and died in Provo, Utah. He earned the B.A. in 1950 and the M.A. in 1951 from Brigham Young University at Provo. He was a Ranger-Naturalist at Arches National Park in 1950, and went on to receive the PhD. in Entomology and Parasitology from the University of Utah in Salt Lake City in 1954. From 1954 to 1956 he was Associate Ecologist and Chief of Entomology and Arachnology at Dugway Proving Ground in western Utah. He joined the faculty of Brigham Young University in 1956, where he remained until retirement. From 1982 to 1987 he was Director of the Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum at Brigham Young University. He retired as Professor of Zoology in September of 1987 and he and his wife, Berna, remained in Provo.
Dr. Allred's interests were in the parasitic acari, parasitology and medical entomology and arthropod ecology. One of his students, Michael Hastriter, said of Dr. Allred, "... I had him in several classes ... He was one of the true naturalists of our day. He was detailed in collecting ecological information and always encouraged his students to take time for scientific observations. From my perspective as a student some 25 years ago, he was a great teacher and [an] example of goodness." He was co-author of one North American species of flea: Megarthroglossus becki Tipton and Allred.
Information included here was derived from American Men and Women in Science, 17th Edition, Volume 1: 93, (1989-90), plus information provided by Dr. and Mrs. Allred and Michael Hastriter.
References on Fleas Authored by Allred

A preliminary study of the distribution of fleas in Utah known to be capable and potential vectors of plague. Master of Science Thesis, Brigham Young University. 141 pp. (unpublished) (1951).

Further distributional data on Utah Siphonaptera. Proc. Utah Acad. Sci., Arts and Letters. 28: 113. (abstract) (1951). (Beck, D.E. and D.M. Allred)

Plague important fleas and mammals in Utah and the western U. S. Gt. Basin Nat. 12(1-4): 67-75 (1952).

New distributional records of Utah Siphonaptera, with the description of a new species of Megarthroglossus J. and R., 1915. Gt. Basin Nat. 11: 105-114 (1952). (Tipton, V.J. and D.M. Allred)

Siphonaptera (fleas) of the Nevada Test Site. B.Y.U. Sci. Bull., Biol Ser. 7(2): 1-27 (1966). (Beck, D.E. and D.M. Allred)

Fleas of the National Reactor Testing Station. Gt. Basin Nat. 28(2): 73-87. (1968)

Mammalian ectoparasite consortium at the National reactor Testing Station. Gt. Basin Nat. 31(2): 77-82. (1971)

SIPHONAPTERA LITERATURE

Though it may not be obvious from the titles, citations included here pertain to fleas and the zoonoses associated with them. No particular effort has been made to search the medical and veterinary literature and the emphasis here is on the taxon omy, systematics and general biology of members of the order.

1993 (List 8)

Jain, P.C. Ctenocephalides canis infestation in sheep treated with ivermectin. Journal of the Bombay Veterinary College 4(1/2): 67-68.

1994 (List 6)

Butler, F.T. Arthropod and helminth parasites from rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus, in southwest Ireland. Irish Naturalist's Journal 24(10): 392-395.

Hopla, C.E., L.A. Durden and J.E. Keirans. Ectoparasites and classification. Revue Scientifique et Technique 13(4): 985-1017.

Hopla, C.E. and A.K. Hopla. Tularemia. In: Handbook of Zoonoses. G.W. Beran (ed.). Second Edition. Section A. Bacterial, Rickettsial, Chlamydial and Mycotic. CRC Press, Boca Raton pp. 113-126.

Maevskii, M.P., L.P. Bazanova, N.P. Konnov, Yu.M. Kapustin and S.V. Sakharov. Variability of Yersinia pestis in the body of fleas. Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii i Immunobiologii 1994(3): 16-21.

Putsintseva, L.S., V.P. Dremova, V.V. Labzin, Yu.V. Ermishev, V.I. Ponomareva, M. M. Mal'tseva, Z.M. Khaidarova and E.V. Dem'yanov. Insecticidal activity of Kotrin against various species of arthropods. Meditsinskaya Parazitologiya i Parazitarnye Bolezni 1994(1): 44-47.

Ruul, K. Parasitosis in Võiste fur farm. Eesti Loomaarstlik Ringvaade 1994(4): 16-18.

Shipstone, M.A., K.V. Mason and B.F. Stone. A multicentre field trial with Decaflea, a cyromazine and diethylcarbamazine tablet for the control of fleas and the prevention of heartworm. Veterinary Dermatology 5(3): 133-134.

TENG Yunfeng. An approach to the foundations for confirming the existence of natural foci of plague and its area's estimation. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 9(4): 4 6.

XIE Zong-zong, XIANG Hui-dong, WU Qi-dong and XING Peiren. A survey of vector sources of plague in the Lijinxia area of Qinghai. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 9(4): 29-32.

YU Xin, et al. An investigation of the ectoparasites of Lepus yarkandensis. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 9(4): 69.

Zakharov, V.V. and A.I. Maiorov. Flea infestations in mink. Krolikovodstvo i Zverovodstvo 1994(4): 22.

ZHAN Shaochen. The potential risk of plague in Fujian inferred from the preval ence of plague in Yunnan. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 9(4): 20-21.

1995 (List 4)

Aktas, M. and A. Hasbenli. Contribution to the flea fauna of Turkey. II. Leptopsyllidae (Siphonaptera). Türkyie Entomoloji Dergisi 19(1): 65-68.

Brown, R. Is behavioural thermoregulation a factor in flea-to-human transmission of Yersinia pestis ? Lancet (British Edition) 345(8954): 931.

Caro, R.R. A review of the control of ectoparasites in dogs. Veterinaria Argentina 12(114): 262-270.

Chomel, B.B., R.C. Abbott, R.W. Kasten, K. A. Floyd-Hawkins, P.H. Kass, C.A. Glaser, N.C. Pedersen and J.E. Koehler. Bartonella henselae prevalence in domestic cats in California: risk factors and association between bacteremia and antibody titers. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 33(9): 2445-2450.

Chumakova, I.V., M.P. Kozlov and F.I. Tobkanev. Results of investigations on the insecticidal activity of Oradelt and Omait against rodent fleas. Meditsinskaya Parazitologiya i Parazitarny Bolezni 1995(1): 25-29.

Cyprich, D. and M. Krumpál. Fleas (Siphonaptera) in nests of birds nesting freely in the crowns of trees and shrubs in Slovakia. In: International studies on Sparrows. International Association for Ecology Working Group on Granivorous Birds - INTECOL. pp. 27-40.

Dryden, M.W. and A.B. Broce. Understanding persistent flea problems. In: R.W. Meola (ed.). Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Ectoparasites of Pets. pp. 17-20.

Fadok, V. A. Overview of equine pruritus. Clinics of North America, Equine Practice 11(1): 1-10.

FEI Rongzhong and WANG Zhigang. Progress made in the biological studies on fleas in recent years. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 10(1): 103-105.

Flexman, J.P., N.J. Lavis, I.D. Kay, M. Watson, C. Metcalf and J.W. Pearman. Bartonella henselae is a causative agent of cat scratch disease in Australia. Journal of Infection 31(3): 241-245.

Franc, M. and M.C. Cadiergues. Use of Lufenuron to control Ctenocephalides felis infestations in the dog. Revue de Médecine Vétérinaire 146(7): 481-484.

Gage, K.L., R.S. Ostfeld and J.G. Olson. Non-viral vector-borne zoonoses associated with mammals in the United States. Journal of Mammalogy 76(3): 695 715.

Gallivan, G.J. and G.A. Surgeoner. Ixodid ticks and other ectoparasites of wild ungulates in Swaziland: regional, host and seasonal patterns. South African Journal of Zoology 30(4): 169-177.

Garanin O.A., N.V. Popov, S.V. Efimov, A.I. Udovikov and G.V. Grigor'eva.
Dynamics in the species composition of nest-dwelling invertebrates in different types of Citellus pygmaeus nests. Parazitologiya 29(1): 37-42.

Genchi, C., B. di Sacco, A. Calderone, G. Oldani. M. de Callegari, M. Morelli, G. Venco and R. del Maso. Efficacy of fipronil in a spray formualtion (Frontline RM) in treating flea and tick infestations in dogs. Professione Veterinaria 1995(1) (supplement): 19-22.

Guaguere, E. Flea-bite allergic dermatitis in dogs and cats. Professione Veterinaria 1995(1) (supplement): 11-13.

Heerden, J. van, M.G.L. Mills, M.J. van Vuuren, P.J. Kelly and M.J. Dreyer. An investigation into the health status and diseases of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus ) in the Kruger National Park. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 66(1): 18-27.

Holbert, M.S. Practical efficacy testing methods of the cat flea. In: R.W. Meola (ed.). Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Ectoparasites of Pets. pp. 119-121.

LI Chao and CHEN Hong-jian. A new species of Hystrichopsylla from Qinghai Province, China (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 20(3): 360-362.

LI Zhong-lai, ZHANG Wan-rong and MA Li-ming. Analysis of the relationship between the flea index, the population of Meriones ungiculatus and meteorological factors. Acta Entomological Sinica 38(4): 442-447.

Liebisch, G. Ectoparasitic infection of laboratory animals: aetiology, diagnosis and control. Deutsche Tierärtzliche Wochenschrift 102(9): 373-374.

LIU Jing-yuan and WANG Dun-qing. Description of the male of Palaeopsylla anserocepsoides and supplementary morphology of Palaeopsylla brevifrontata (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 20(3): 378-380.

Marchiondo, A.A., S.M. Meola, K.G. Palma, J.H. Slusser and R.W. Meola. Ultrastructure of the egg of the cat flea. In: R.W. Meola (ed.). Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Ectoparasites of Pets. pp. 35-41.

Miller, R.W. and S.A. Manweiler. Commercialization of steinermatid nematodes for control of outdoor flea larvae and pupae. In: R.W. Meola (ed.). Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Ectoparasites of Pets. pp. 43-58.

Moyses, E.W. Measurement of insecticide resistance in the adult cat flea. In: R.W. Meola (ed.). Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Ectoparasites of Pets. pp. 21-34.

Nemec, F., D. Cyprich and M. Krumpál. The occurrence of fleas (Siphonaptera) in the nests of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus L., 1758) and the tree sparrow (Passer montanus L., 1758) in Plzen (western Czech Republic). In: International studies on Sparrows. International Association for Ecology Working Group on Granivorous Birds - INTECOL. pp. 21-25.

Nikitin, A. Ya., L.P. Bazanova, L.K. Nechaeva, V.M. Korzun, A.V. Khabarov and L.I. Kozets. Experimental study of the ability of hybrids obtained by crossing two subspecies of the flea Citellophilus tesquorum to transmit the plague pathogen. Meditsinskaya Parazitologiya i Parazitarnye Bolezni 1995(4): 14-17.

Nte, A.R. and F.U. Eke. Jigger infestation in children in a rural area of Rivers State of Nigeria. West African Journal of Medicine 14(1): 56-58.

O'Dair, H.A. and A.P. Foster. Focal and generalized alopecia. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Small Animal Practice 25(4): 851-870.

Petrovsky, M., A. Kosisova and J. Venglovsky. Testing the efficacy of DIFFUSIL preparations against dog ectoparasites. Slovensky Veterinársky Casiopis 20(5): 238-241.

Poinar, G.O., Jr. Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) in Dominican amber. Medical Science Research 23: 789.

Postal, J.M. Efficacy of a 0.25% fipronil based formulation spray in the treatment and prevention of flea infestations of dogs and cats. Professione Veterinaria 1995(1) (supplement): 17-18.

QI Yi-ming. Morphological description of the larvae of Ceratophyllus farreni chaoi and their comparison with the larvae of Ceratophyllus gallinae tribulus. Entomol ogica Sinica 2(2): 125-129.

Sapegina, V.F., N.L. Gershkovich, Yu.V. Drosdova, I.V. Lukjanova and Yu.S. Ravkin. The flea (Siphonaptera) fauna of the northeastern Altai. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 74(3): 582-588.

Sousa, C.A. Exudative, crusting and scaling dermatoses. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Small Animal Practice 25(4): 813-831.

TIAN Ji. A study of the community of rodents and fleas in the natural plague foci in Jianchuang. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 10(1): 29-36.

Vashchenok, V.S. Dependence of egg-laying activity on the density of a Leptopsylla segnis (Siphonaptera: Leptopsyllidae) population on a host. Parazitologiya 29(4): 267-271.

Vennos, E., E. Burke, C. Johns and S. Miller. Tungiasis. Cutis (New York) 56(4): 206-207.

Vizzio, E.A. and R.R. Caro. Use of ivermectin and lufenuron in the treatment of dog fleas. Veterinaria Argentina 12(116): 406-408.

WANG Dun-qing and LIU Jin-yuan. Description of a new species of Stenischia Jordan (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 20(3): 363 365.

XIAO B.-l. Description of the larval morphology of Ceratophyllus chutsaensis (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae) Acta Entomologica Sinica 38(2): 188-190.

Zimmerman, H. Flea control with permethrin in pregnant mink. Kleintierpraxis 40(6): 484, 487.

1996 (List 2)

Bakr, M.E., T.A. Morsy, N.E.A. Nassef and M.A. El Meligi. Flea ectoparasites of commensal rodents in Shebin El Kom, Menoufia Govenorate, Egypt. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology 26(1): 39-52.

Beaucournu, J.-C. and D. Kock. Xenopsylla microphthalma n. sp., a new species from Tanzania (Insecta: Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Senckenbergiana Biologia 75(1/2): 159-162.

Blagburn, B.L. Advances in ectoparasite control: Insect growth regulators and insect development inhibitors. Veterinary Medicine 91(6): (supplement) 1-14.

Bildhauer, C., E.G. Grunbaum and C. Hoffmann. The influence of flea collars on the serum cholinesterase plasma activity in cats. Kleintierpraxis 41(6): 433-440.

Breathnach, R. Flea dermatitis and flea hypersensitivity: The current situation in Ireland. Irish Veterinary Journal 49(7): 426-433.

Brown, C.R. and M.B. Brown. Coloniality in the cliff swallow. The effect of group size on social behavior. University of Chicago Press. xiii + 566 pp.

Byers, G.W. More on the origin of Siphonaptera. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 69(3): 274-277.

Chomel, B.R., et al. Experimental transmission of Bartonella henselae by the cat flea. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 34: 1952-1956.

Clyde, V.L. Practical treatment and control of common ectoparasites in exotic pets. Veterinary Medicine 91(7): 632-638.

Doby, J.M. Des Compagnons de Toujours... Puce, pou, morpion, punaise... et autres parasites de notre peau, dans l'Histoire, l'Art, la littérature, la chanson, le language, les traditions populaires... I - La Puce. Imprimerie Bayeusaine, Z. I. 7, rue de la Résistance, 14401 Bayeux Cedex, France. 184 pp.

Gross, L. How the plague bacillus and its transmission through fleas were discovered: Reminiscences from my years at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Current Science 70(12): 1103-.

Guaguere, E. Flea allergy dermatitis associated with a dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis in a cat. Pratique Médicale and Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie 31(1): 57-58.

Heeb, P., I. Werner, H. Richner and M. Kölliker. Horizontal transmission and reproductive rates of hen fleas in great tit nests. Journal of Animal Ecology 65(4): 474-484.

Higgins, J.A., S. Radulovic, M.E. Schriefer and A.F. Azad. Rickettsia felis : A new species of pathogenic rickettsia isolated from cat fleas. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 34(3): 671-674.

Hinnebusch, B.J., R.D. Perry and T.G. Schwan. Role of the Yersinia pestis hemin storage (hms) locus in the transmission of plague by fleas. Science 273 (5273): 367-370.

Ibáñez-Bernal, S. and O. Velasco-Castrejón. New records of human tungiasis in Mexico (Siphonaptera: Tungidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 33(6): 988-989.

Jensen, I.H. and N. Bille (eds.). Danish Pest Infestation Laboratory Annual Report, 1995. 85 pp.

Kawada, H. and M. Hirano. Insecticidal effects of the insect growth regulators methoprene and pyriproxyfen on the cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) Journal of Medical Entomology 33(5): 819-822.

Krylova, T.V. and S.Y. Chaika. Morphological variability of fleas (Siphonaptera) under chronic radiation exposure. Zoologichesky Zhurnal 75(6): 874-880.

Kumar, K., K. Katyal, K.S. Gill and S. Jamil-Ur-Rahman. Prevalence of rat fleas in and around the Delhi (India) area and their susceptibility status to insecticides. Japanese Journal of Medical Science and Biology 49(2): 57-62.

Lang, J.D. Factors affecting the seasonal abundance of ground squirrel and wood rat fleas (Siphonaptera) in San Diego County, California. Journal of Medical Entomology 33(5): 790-804.

Lareschi, M.S. Estudio preliminar de la comunidad de roedores (Rodentia: Muridae) y sus ectoparasitos (Acari, Phthiraptera y Siphonaptera) en Punta Lara (Buenos Aires) Revista de la Sociedad Entomologica Argentina 55(1-4): 113-120.

Larsen, K.S. 9.1.1 The squirrel flea Ceratophyllus sciurorum sciurorum. Danish Pest Infestation Laboratory Annual Report, 1995: 51-53.

Larsen, K.S. 9.1.2 Behavioural studies. Danish Pest Infestation Laboratory Annual Report, 1995: 54.

Larsen, K.S. 9.2 The hen flea Ceratophyllus gallinae. Danish Pest Infestation Laboratory Annual Report, 1995: 54.

Larsen, K.S. and J. Lodal. 9.3.1 Rodent biology and integrated pest management in agriculture and public health in East Africa. Danish Pest Infestation Laboratory Annual Report, 1995: 55.

Larson, O.R., R.G. Schwab and A. Fairbrother. Seasonal occurrence of fleas (Siphonaptera) on deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus ) in northern California. Journal of Vector Ecology 21(1): 31-36.

LI Gui-zen (Kuei-chen). Two new species of the genus Macrostylophora (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 21(2): 239-243.

McCay, T.S. and L.A. Durden. Ticks and fleas of shrews in Appalachian Georgia and North Carolina. Journal of Parasitology 82(4): 666-668.

Mears, S. and K.S. Larsen. 9.3.2 The effect of rat host, Rattus rattus, age and gender upon the behaviour of the Oriental rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis. Danish Pest Infestation Laboratory Annual Report, 1995: 55-56.

Meola, R., S. Pullen and S. Meola. Toxicity and histopathology of the growth regulator pyriproxyfen to adults and eggs of the cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 33(4): 670-679.

Metzger, M.E. and M.K. Rust. Egg production and emergence of adult cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) exposed to different photoperiods. Journal of Medical Entomology 33(4); 651-655.

Metzger, M.E., M.K. Rust and D.A. Reierson. Activity of insecticides applied to turfgrass to control adult cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 89(4): 935-940.

Moyses, E.W. and F.J. Gfeller. Application methodology for the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Insect Pests in the Urban Environment. K.B. Wildey (ed.). pp. 604.

Olsen, A. 9.4.1 Diflubenzuron. Danish Pest Infestation Laboratory Annual Report, 1995: 56.

Pecheu-Haston, C.M., T.J. Grier, R.E. Esch and D.E. Bevier. Allergenic cross reactivities in flea-reactive canine serum samples. American Journal of Veterinary Research 57(7): 1000-1005.

QI Yi-ming. The development of the sensilium in three flea species. Entomologica Sin-ica 3(1): 90-94.

Sapegina, V.F. The fleas of Insectivora from the western and middle Siberia. Parazitologiya 30(2): 105-112.

Sciesinski, K. Insecticide action of Polwet 5, Polwet 20 and Polwet aerosol (methylbromphenvinfos) against external parasites (Sarcoptes scabiei v. canis, Otodectes cynotis, Chaetopsylla globiceps ) in polar and silver foxes. Scientifur 20(1): 108-110.

Scott, D.W. Interstitial dermatitis in dogs and cats. A retrospective study of the significance of its histopathologic reaction pattern. Médecin Vétérinaire du Québec 26(1): 16-19.

Smith, R.D., A.J. Paul, U.D. Kitron, J.R. Philip, S. Barnett, M.J. Piel, R.W. Ness and M Evilsizer. Impact of an orally administered insect growth regulator (lufenuron) on flea infestations of dogs in a controlled simulated home environment. American Journal of Veterinary Research 57(4): 502-504.

Thomas, R.E. Fleas and the agents they transmit. pp. 146-159. In: Biology of Disease Vectors. B.J. Beaty and W.C. Marquardt (eds.). University of Colorado Press. 632 pp. ISBN 0-87081-411-7. $70.00 US.

Tselentis, Y., A. Psaroulaki, J. Maniatis, I Spyridaki and T. Babalis. Genotypic identification of murine typhus rickettsiae in rats and their fleas in an endemic area of Greece by the polymerase chair reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 54(4): 413-417.

WANG Dun-qing and LIU Jin-yuan. A new species of Ceratophyllus from Hubei Province (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae). Acta Entomologica Sinica 39(1): 90-93.

Willis, E.L., G.A. Kunkle, R.E. Esch, T.J. Grier and P.S. Kubilis. Intradermal reactivity to various insect and arachnid allergens among dogs from the southeastern United States. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 209(8): 1431-1434.

Zahedi, M., J. Jeffery, K. Krishnasamy and V.K. Bahrat.
Ectoparasites of Rattus rattus diardi from Kuala Lumpur City, Malaysia. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Insect Pests in the Urban Environment. K.B. Wildey (ed.). pp.437-439.

It should be understood that all Russian and Chinese citations listed here are in Russian or Chinese, although they may have summaries or abstracts in English or some other language. Additional information is available upon request (including e mail) and recipients are urged to report citations of articles on Siphonaptera, particularly those published in rare sources or those in journals peripheral to the field of Entomology.

Use of an orally administered insect development inhibitor (Lufenuron) as a flea control agent in the California ground squirrel, Spermophilus bee cheyi.

Dr. Richard M. Davis, Public Health Biologist, Vector-Borne Disease Section, California Department of Heath Services, Ventura, CA, published the following account in the latest Vector Ecology Newsletter 27(3): 14.

"The presence of plague in a population of susceptible rodents closely associated with human activity has generally necessitated intervention with insecticides to reduce the number of potentially infective vector fleas to lessen the transmission risk to humans. In many instances, temporary closure of recreational facilities for plague control occured, therefore resulting in not only an unpopular situation, but one with potential major economic implications to the campground and the tourist economy of the area. In addition to those potential economic impacts, the costs directly attributable to flea suppression are also significant when all of the time, material and labor costs are considered

[ "Lufenuron, a new insect development inhibitor (IDI) recently introduced by Ciba Animal Health [Note: Ciba and Sandoz are now merged] as Program® for dogs and cats and marked as a once-a-month oral treatment, has become extremely effective in controlling the cat flea. As an IDI, lufenuron does not kill adult fleas, but effectively and safely controls flea populations through a mode of action which breaks the flea's life cycle, primarily at the egg stage, by interfering with the deposition of chitin. As a result, a project was devised to determine the effectiveness of lufenuron in flea control in a population of California ground squirrels, Spermophilus beecheyi, in a campground environment. The project is based upon the following goals: (1) to reduce the use of insecticides in flea control, (2) to significantly reduce the costs of traditional flea control, and (3) to incorporate a simple, routine, and easy-to-use flea control supression program into plague endemic recreational areas.

"Field observations and lufenuron blood analysis of S. beecheyi have shown that a newly developed bait cube was an effective means of supplying an oral dose. Lufenuron levels and flea control results have been somewhat mixed in the early stages of the study, but an improving trend appears to be evident. Results to date and the potential of lufenuron, or other similar types of IDI's, as simple, routine, and easy-to-use flea control agents in plague endemic recreational areas will be discussed at the upcoming annual SOVE meeting in October."

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